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Utility of real-time three-dimensional intracardiac echocardiography for patent foramen ovale closure

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  • Contributors CC: specialist registrar who assisted VSM in the PFO closure procedure and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. SAH: cardiac physiologist who obtained and processed the intracardiac echocardiography images during the procedure, and prepared the images for the manuscript figure. VSM: consultant who performed the PFO closure procedure, suggested the images for publication, and revised the first draft into its final version for submission. VSM is responsible for the overall content as guarantor.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval This is a clinical case report and therefore does not require ethics committee approval.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.