Objectives Through retrospective analysis of related factors of children’s hypertension what is composed by primary hypertension and secondary hypertension disease as well as analysis of hypertension risk factors, to provide the basis for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in children.
Methods Retrospective analysis of the children who diagnosis with hypertension in patient at the First hospital of Jilin University from January 1, 2003 to Decmber 31, 2013. Diagnostic criteria is in the light of “Zhu Futang Practice of paediatrics” (Seventh Edition). Combined with the hypertension in children with secondary hypertension, which were divided into two categories according to the aetiology of the primary hypertension and secondary hypertension. We research on the proportion of the primary hypertension and secondary hypertension total incidence each year in 10 years. The analysis of relationship between the children’s age, gender, height, weight and other factors in patients with primary hypertension.
Results The age of onset were mainly school-age, the average age was 12.25 ± 2.17 years, the median age was 12 years. The proportion of male and female was 3:1, with essential hypertension of 99 cases and secondary hypertension of 164 cases. The cases in each year were 18, 24, 17, 19, 21, 23, 35, 32, 36, 38 from 2003 to 2012. The cases of essential hypertension and secondary hypertension in each year were 3/15, 4/20, 4/13, 3/16, 6/15, 7/16, 17/18, 16/16, 19 / 17,20 / 18. 164 cases of secondary hypertension including 72 cases of renal hypertension, which is accounting for the first of secondary hypertension; followed by 27 cases of cardiovascular disease, including 21 cases of multiple arteritis, 4 cases of aortic stenosis, 2 cases of Kawasaki disease; 24 cases of Endocrine system diseases; 15 cases of central nervous system diseases; 16 cases of drug-induced disease, mainly in patients with long-term use of glucocorticoids; 10 other cases, including infection, stress and other reasons. Essential hypertension there is a rising trend, especially in the last four years, the cases of hypertension increased significantly over the previous six years, and many of these patients are associated with obesity, diagnostic criteria of obesity according to “paediatrics” (eight 2nd edition),among the 99 patients with primary hypertension in children, there are 90 cases achieved obese standard, including 23 cases of mild obesity, 59 cases of moderate obesity, 8 cases of severe obesity.
Conclusions Through retrospectively analysed the morbidity of children hypertension in recent 10 years, we found that total incidence of children hypertension increased year by year. The main reason of the rise is an increase in the number of primary hypertension. Among the 99 patients with primary hypertension in children, there are 90 cases achieved obesity standard, which show obesity is one of the important risk factors of childhood hypertension. The age of onset are mainly school-age; More the proportion of boy than girl, this is related to the obesity incidence of boy higher then girl. So avoid obesity is an important measure to reduce the incidence of childhood hypertension. Although the incidence of essential hypertension has a rising trend, but childhood hypertension is still given priority to with secondary hypertension, with renal hypertension accounted for the largest number, followed disease cause of Secondary hypertension by cardiovascular system diseases and Endocrine system hypertension..
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