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Utility of real-time three-dimensional intracardiac echocardiography for patent foramen ovale closure
  1. Colin Cunnington,
  2. Simon A Hampshaw,
  3. Vaikom S Mahadevan
  1. Department of Cardiology, Manchester Heart Centre, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Vaikom S Mahadevan, Department of Cardiology, Manchester Heart Centre, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL, UK; vaikom.mahadevan{at}

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Recently, many interventional centres have adopted intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) in preference to transoesophageal echocardiography to guide percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure. ICE obviates the need for general anaesthesia, facilitating earlier hospital discharge, and gives superior imaging capability, particularly of the inferior interatrial septum.1 ,2

The advent of real-time three-dimensional (RT3D) echocardiography has been a major technological advance in transoesophageal echocardiography; however until very recently ICE has been limited to two-dimensional (2D) imaging. RT3D imaging allows for more comprehensive anatomical …

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  • Contributors CC: specialist registrar who assisted VSM in the PFO closure procedure and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. SAH: cardiac physiologist who obtained and processed the intracardiac echocardiography images during the procedure, and prepared the images for the manuscript figure. VSM: consultant who performed the PFO closure procedure, suggested the images for publication, and revised the first draft into its final version for submission. VSM is responsible for the overall content as guarantor.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval This is a clinical case report and therefore does not require ethics committee approval.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.