Paravalvular prosthetic regurgitation is common, affecting 5–10% of surgical prostheses and 40–70% of transcatheter valves. While many patients may suffer no significant morbidity, paravalvular prosthetic regurgitation can lead to heart failure and haemolytic anaemia, and, in some studies, has been associated with impaired survival. Over the past several years, percutaneous repair of paravalvular prosthetic regurgitation has been demonstrated to be a highly efficacious therapy. When performed in experienced centres, procedural success with percutaneous repair occurs in 90% of patients. Due to the complex nature of the techniques, there is a significant learning curve with a high potential for prolonged procedures (∼2.5 h) and complications (∼5%), although death is rare (∼0.5%). Percutaneous repair of paravalvular prosthetic regurgitation requires a close collaboration between imaging specialists, surgeons and the interventional operators. Importantly, successful percutaneous repair obviates the need for open surgical correction, which can be high risk or prohibitive due to the need for reoperation in the setting of comorbidities. Herein, we discuss appropriate patient selection, the catheter-based techniques and outcomes of percutaneous repair for symptomatic paravalvular prosthetic regurgitation.
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