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Original research article
Progress in reducing inequalities in cardiovascular disease mortality in Europe
  1. Chiara Di Girolamo1,2,
  2. Wilma J Nusselder2,
  3. Matthias Bopp3,
  4. Henrik Brønnum-Hansen4,
  5. Giuseppe Costa5,
  6. Katalin Kovács6,
  7. Mall Leinsalu7,8,
  8. Pekka Martikainen9,
  9. Barbara Pacelli10,
  10. José Rubio Valverde2,
  11. Johan P Mackenbach2
  1. 1Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
  2. 2Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
  3. 3Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
  4. 4Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  5. 5Department of Clinical Medicine and Biology, University of Turin, Torino, Italy
  6. 6Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary
  7. 7Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden
  8. 8Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, National Institute for Health Development, Tallin, Estonia
  9. 9Population Research Unit, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  10. 10Regional Health and Social Care Agency of Emilia-Romagna, Bologna, Italy
  1. Correspondence to Professor Johan P Mackenbach, Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam 3062 PA, Netherlands; j.mackenbach{at}erasmusmc.nl

Footnotes

  • Contributors CDG conceptualised the study, analysed the data and prepared the first and subsequent drafts of themanuscript. JPM conceptualised the study, contributed to the interpretation of the results, critically reviewed the manuscript and contributed to the writing. WJN contributed to the data harmonisation, the study conceptualisation and commented on the manuscript. MB, HB-H, GC, KK, ML, PM and BP prepared the data and commented on the manuscript. JRV participated in the analysis. All authors approved the final version. JPM acts as guarantor of the study.

  • Funding This study was conducted as part of the LIFEPATH project, which has received financial support from the European Commission (Horizon 2020 grant number 633666). Data were partly collected as part of the DEMETRIQ project, which also received support from the European Commission (FP7-CP-FP grant number 278511). The mortality data for Switzerland were obtained from the Swiss National Cohort, which is based on mortality and census data provided by the Federal Statistical Office and supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant nos. 3347CO-108806, 33CS30_134273 and 33CS30_148415). CeLSIUS is supported by the ESRC Census of Population Programme (Award Ref: ES/K000365/1). Chiara Di Girolamo was financially supported by a scholarship from the University of Bologna.

  • Disclaimer The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. This work uses research datasets that may not exactly reproduce National Statistics aggregates. The authors alone are responsible for the interpretation of the data.

  • Competing interests JPM reports grants from European Commission (Horizon 2020 grant number 633666, and FP7-CP-FP grant number 278511) during the conduct of the study.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval This work is based on a secondary analysis of routinely collected and fully anonymised administrative data and does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. Informed consent or approval by a medical ethics board was not required under national regulations.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement No data are available.

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Footnotes

  • Contributors CDG conceptualised the study, analysed the data and prepared the first and subsequent drafts of themanuscript. JPM conceptualised the study, contributed to the interpretation of the results, critically reviewed the manuscript and contributed to the writing. WJN contributed to the data harmonisation, the study conceptualisation and commented on the manuscript. MB, HB-H, GC, KK, ML, PM and BP prepared the data and commented on the manuscript. JRV participated in the analysis. All authors approved the final version. JPM acts as guarantor of the study.

  • Funding This study was conducted as part of the LIFEPATH project, which has received financial support from the European Commission (Horizon 2020 grant number 633666). Data were partly collected as part of the DEMETRIQ project, which also received support from the European Commission (FP7-CP-FP grant number 278511). The mortality data for Switzerland were obtained from the Swiss National Cohort, which is based on mortality and census data provided by the Federal Statistical Office and supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant nos. 3347CO-108806, 33CS30_134273 and 33CS30_148415). CeLSIUS is supported by the ESRC Census of Population Programme (Award Ref: ES/K000365/1). Chiara Di Girolamo was financially supported by a scholarship from the University of Bologna.

  • Disclaimer The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. This work uses research datasets that may not exactly reproduce National Statistics aggregates. The authors alone are responsible for the interpretation of the data.

  • Competing interests JPM reports grants from European Commission (Horizon 2020 grant number 633666, and FP7-CP-FP grant number 278511) during the conduct of the study.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval This work is based on a secondary analysis of routinely collected and fully anonymised administrative data and does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. Informed consent or approval by a medical ethics board was not required under national regulations.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement No data are available.

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