Aims Purpose of this study is to compare the clinical course and outcome of patients with recurrent versus first-episode infective endocarditis (IE).
Methods Patients with recurrent and first-episode IE enrolled in the EUROpean ENDOcarditis (EURO-ENDO) registry including 156 centres were identified and compared using propensity score matching. Recurrent IE was classified as relapse when IE occurred ≤6 months after a previous episode or reinfection when IE occurred >6 months after the prior episode.
Results 3106 patients were enrolled: 2839 (91.4%) patients with first-episode IE (mean age 59.4 (±18.1); 68.3% male) and 267 (8.6%) patients with recurrent IE (mean age 58.1 (±17.7); 74.9% male). Among patients with recurrent IE, 13.2% were intravenous drug users (IVDUs), 66.4% had a repaired or replaced valve with the tricuspid valve being more frequently involved compared with patients with first-episode IE (20.3% vs 14.1%; p=0.012). In patients with a first episode of IE, the aortic valve was more frequently involved (45.6% vs 39.5%; p=0.061). Recurrent relapse and reinfection were 20.6% and 79.4%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the microorganism most frequently observed in both groups (p=0.207). There were no differences in in-hospital and post-hospitalisation mortality between recurrent and first-episode IE. In patients with recurrent IE, in-hospital mortality was higher in IVDU patients. Independent predictors of poorer in-hospital and 1-year outcome, including the occurrence of cardiogenic and septic shock, valvular disease severity and failure to undertake surgery when indicated, were similar for recurrent and first-episode IE.
Conclusions In-hospital and 1-year mortality was similar in patients with recurrent and first-episode IE who shared similar predictors of poor outcome.
- heart valve diseases
- cardiac surgical procedures
Data availability statement
All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.
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RC and K-LC contributed equally.
Contributors Coauthors involved in conduct, planning and reporting: RC, K-LC, MHM, CL, RMB, SF, JM, CO, BP, AP, CP, ASal, ASav, SWP, PS, PT, NV, PL. GH is the guarantor of the overall content.
Funding Since the start of EORP, the following companies have supported the programme: Abbott Vascular Int. (2011–2021), Amgen Cardiovascular (2009–2018), AstraZeneca (2014–2021), Bayer AG (2009–2018), Boehringer Ingelheim (2009–2019), Boston Scientific (2009–2012), The Bristol Myers Squibb and Pfizer Alliance (2011–2019), Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH (2011–2020), The Alliance Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH and Eli Lilly and Company (2014–2017), Edwards (2016–2019), Gedeon Richter Plc. (2014–2016), Menarini Int. Op. (2009–2012), MSD-Merck & Co. (2011–2014), Novartis Pharma AG (2014–2020), ResMed (2014–2016), Sanofi (2009–2011), SERVIER (2009–2018), Vifor (2019–2022).
Competing interests None declared.
Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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