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Double outlet ventricles: review of anatomic and imaging characteristics
  1. Zhuoyuan Xu1,2,
  2. Thomas Semple3,4,
  3. Hong Gu2,
  4. Karen P McCarthy4,5,
  5. Siew Yen Ho4,5,
  6. Wei Li1,4
  1. 1Adult Congenital Heart Disease and Echocardipgraphy, Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals, London, UK
  2. 2Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
  3. 3Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospital, London, UK
  4. 4National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK
  5. 5The Cardiac Morphology Unit, Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospital, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Wei Li, Consultant in Adult Congenital Heart Disease and Echocardiography, Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals, London, UK; W.Li{at}


Hearts with double outlet ventricles and concordant atrioventricular connections account for about 1%–3% of all cases of congenital heart disease. We review hearts with two ventricles and concordant atrioventricular connections with double outlet right ventricle (DORV), double outlet left ventricle (DOLV) and double outlet both ventricles (DOBV) from the morphological and clinical imaging perspectives. These hearts are a heterogeneous group of congenital cardiac malformations with a wide range of pathophysiologies that require an individualised surgical approach based on a precise understanding of the complex cardiovascular anatomy. Owing to their differing temporal, spatial and contrast resolutions, we propose that multimodality imaging provides optimal characterisation of various intracardiac morphological features of double outlet hearts. This approach aids clinical diagnosis for optimising treatment options across these malformations.

  • diagnostic imaging
  • echocardiography
  • computed tomography angiography

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  • Contributors SYH and WL conceptualised the study. ZX developed the theory and wrote the original manuscript with support from WL, which was critically reviewed and edited by TS, KPMcC and SYH. Supervision was performed by WL and SYH. HG has made substantial contributions in revising the manuscript and prepare for the response to the reviewers’ question.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests There are no competing interests for any author.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.