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Biomarkers in heart failure: a focus on natriuretic peptides
  1. Mohamed Eltayeb,
  2. Iain Squire,
  3. Shirley Sze
  1. Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
  1. Correspondence to Shirley Sze, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK; shirley.sze{at}


While progress has been made in the management of most aspects of cardiovascular disease, the incidence and prevalence of heart failure (HF) remains high. HF affects around a million people in the UK and has a worse prognosis than most cancers. Patients with HF are often elderly with complex comorbidities, making accurate assessment of HF challenging. A timely diagnosis and initiation of evidence-based treatments are key to prevent hospitalisation and improve outcomes in this population. Biomarkers have dramatically impacted the way patients with HF are evaluated and managed. The most studied biomarkers in HF are natriuretic peptides (NPs). Since their discovery in the 1980s, there has been an explosion of work in the field of NPs and they have become an important clinical tool used in everyday practice to guide diagnosis and prognostic assessment of patients with HF. In this article, we will review the physiology of NPs and study their biological effects. Then, we will discuss the role of NPs in the diagnosis, management and prognostication of patients with HF. We will also explore the role of NPs as a potential therapeutic agent.

  • heart failure
  • biomarkers

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  • Contributors SS and ME performed literature review and wrote the manuscript. IS reviewed the manuscript.

  • Funding This research was supported by the NIHR Leicester Clinical Research Centre.

  • Disclaimer The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

  • Author note References which include * are considered to be key references.