153 e-Letters

published between 2014 and 2017

  • Presenting the results of a pharmacoeconomic study: incremental cost-effectiveness ratio vs net monetary benefit

    The article by Wouters and colleagues (1) presents an exhaustive overview on how QALYs can be used in cost-effectiveness analysis. In this framework, the authors also mention the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which is the parameter typically employed to express the results of a cost-effectiveness study. The article, however, does not discuss the net monetary benefit (NMB), which is another parameter employed to express the results of a cost-effectiveness study.

    The incremental cost (deltaC) and the incremental effectiveness (deltaE) are the two main parameters of pharmacoeconomics and cost-effectiveness analysis, along with the willingness-to-pay threshold (lambda). The decision rule (e.g. in the case of a favourable pharmacoeconomic result) is (deltaC/deltaE)<lambda (Equation 1), if based on the ICER, or (deltaE x lambda - deltaC) > 0 (Equation 2), if based on the NMB. Likewise, an unfavourable pharmacoeconomic result is when (deltaC/deltaE)>lambda or when (deltaE x lambda - deltaC) < 0; NMB is defined as deltaE x lambda - deltaC, while ICER is defined as deltaC/deltaE.

    Despite its apparent complexity, most part of pharmacoeconomic methodology is described by the two simple equations reported above (i.e. Equations 1 and 2), but whether the ICER or the NMB is the best parameter for the purposes of pharmacoeconomic decision-making remains on open question.

    The study by Cowper et al evaluating new versus old oral antic...

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  • Moderate Sedation in Cardiac Electrophysiology Laboratory: a retrospective safety analysis

    Sawhney et al. reported that nurse-led, physician-directed moderate sedation during cardiac electrophysiology procedures is safe (1). All of the patients undergoing cardiac electrophysiological (EP) procedures and cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation during the last 12 years were moderately sedated. Since this study is a retrospective study, we could not comprehend why all patients were sedated despite the fact that routine sedation during all cardiac EP procedures and all CIED implantation is not recommended.
    Moreover, as mentioned in the article, sedation is a continuum and it is not always possible to predict how individual patients will respond. Therefore, a gradual increase of doses of the sedatives during sedation may be needed which may possibly increase the procedure duration. Did authors ascertain any prolongation of the procedures due to sedative administration?
    Furthermore, sedation may diminish arrythmia induction during EP procedures, particularly in patients with catecholamine-sensitive ventricular tachycardias (2). Did authors have any data questioning this issue?
    As a conclusion, the aim of sedation is to diminish the anxiety and to relieve the pain during the procedure. Therefore, using moderate sedation selectively in patients with anxiety or hyperalgesia may be more practical and rational rather than its routine use due to the fact that as mentioned in the article, researches and audit demonstrate continued avoidabl...

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  • RE: Tea consumption and risk of ischaemic heart disease
    Dr.Rajiv Kumar

    This is good to read a research article on "Tea consumption and risk of ischaemic heart disease" This is the largest prospective study (cohort of Chinese adults) published to assess the association between tea consumption and incidence of IHD and showed that daily tea consumption is beneficial in reducing risk of IHD. Study has more limitations (although the investigators rightly said this).The is observational study,ma...

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  • Time metrics for reperfusion therapy and failure to achieve Guideline mandated times with P-PCI

    We read with interest the article by Varcoe et al (Heart Jan 15 th 20917) “Impact of call-to-balloon time on 30-day mortality in contemporary practice” We were not surprised by the results which indicate yet again that patients with delays to reperfusion suffer worse mortality rates - the concept of timely reperfusion in STEMI has been previously very well documented, and its importance recognised for some time. Thus de Lucca (1), Cannon (2) and others (3) reported data >10 years ago which supported the concept that mortality rates increase when important time metrics are not achieved. Time dependent infarct size is considered the cause (4)
    When the National Infarct Angioplasty Project (NIAP) was established in 2008 with the explicit aim of rolling out P-PCI in the UK, everyone involved in care of STEMI patients thought it was a good idea to go with a policy of one STEMI management strategy, for simplicity. No-one doubted that P-PCI should become the standard of care. Some (including the authors of this letter - one of whom served on NIAP) voiced concerns however that, based on the published data, achieving guideline mandated times was essential, and that this might be difficult to achieve with P-PCI in patients transferred from more rural regions. There was assurance from Department of Health that >95% of patients were “within distance” of a P-PCI centre. We tried to point out that being “within distance”, and being within the mandated times were very differe...

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  • Re:A Case for Palliative PCI
    James Cockburn

    We would like to thank Sarah Blake et al, for their thoughtful and insightful comments.

    Firstly, we agree that "palliative PCI" can be a very useful treatment in this elderly patient population. Locally at our institution, via our heart team meeting, we can offer an elderly symptomatic patient with multiple co-morbidities percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), which often fails to achieve complete re-vasculari...

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  • Cautious anticoagulation strategy in patients with dialysis-requiring end-stage kidney disease.
    Jonathan M Behar

    We read with interest this manuscript which demonstrated in a large clinical registry that patients with chronic kidney disease with indications for anticoagulation were often treated sub-therapeutically (1). A more aggressive approach was therefore advocated.

    We would like to point out that, while this study should be commended for including a large number of patients, it did not show data on the key clinical...

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  • Considering genomic variants for cardiovascular disease prediction
    Sherry-Ann N. Brown

    Dear Editor,

    I read with great interest the article by Morris et al entitled, "Marginal role for 53 common genetic variants in cardiovascular disease prediction" (1). The article analyzed a large sample of 11, 851 individuals from 7 prospective studies aimed at primary prevention of fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke.

    The study incorporated susceptibility variants for CHD and str...

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  • "Definite Diagnosis of Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: An Unsettled Issue"
    Adriano Caixeta

    We read with great interest the manuscript by Faden et al. (1) entitled "A nationwide evaluation of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in pregnancy and the puerperium" when it was published online July 13. Using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project national database, the authors evaluated over 4 million pregnancy-related discharges, looking at the prevalence and outcomes of pregnancy-associated spontaneous cor...

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  • A Case for Palliative PCI
    Sarah R Blake

    Dear Editor

    On reading the review on coronary revascularisation in the elderly by Cockburn et al (1) I must agree that more trials are needed to focus on the benefit of PCI in elderly populations.

    When assessing these patients, clinicians should consider the impact of symptom relief versus procedural risk. If a patient is experiencing recurrent and debilitating chest pain requiring frequent hospital a...

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  • Oxygen is toxic during reoxygenation in STEMI patients as well as in other clinical conditions
    Ola Didrik Saugstad

    Nehme and coworkers tested out the effect of air versus oxygen on myocardial injury in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).1 When administered in the first 12 hours after STEMI oxygen was associated with a dose-dependent increase in troponin and creatine kinase. In 2015 the same group of investigators published a study in Circulation showing that air instead of oxygen supplementation in STEMI led to improved outco...

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