Table 1

Factors influencing the treatment decision of renal artery stenosis

ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme.
▸ Favouring renal revascularisation:
    Refractory hypertension despite >3 drugs
    Progressive azotemia
    Acute renal failure on ACE inhibitors (angiotensin II receptor blockers)
    Recurrent “flash” pulmonary oedema
    “Salvage” therapy in recent onset end stage renal disease
▸ Favouring conservative treatment/watchful waiting:
    Hypertension controlled on <3 drugs
    Normal renal function
    Stable mild/moderate renal insufficiency
    Advanced renal atrophy (<7.5 cm)
    Doppler ultrasonographic renal resistance index >80
    History or clinical evidence of cholesterol embolisation