Table 2

Steps in conventional bypass surgery, consequences and potential solutions

Surgical traumaConsequence(s)Solution
For details see text.
Access to the heartRecovery timeMinithoracotomy
Full sternotomyInfection (e.g.mediastinitis)Port-access surgery
Endoscopic robotic CABG
Cardiopulmonary bypassManipulation heart and aorta (microemboli)Off-pump CABG
Inflammatory response
Cardiac arrestCell injury, necrosisOff-pump CABG
Side clampingMicroemboliNo-touch aorta surgery
Aorta ascendens(in situ arterial grafting) (graft interposition)