Table 3

Hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease

Time series studyGeographic areaPollutantsEffect on CVS admissions
Schwartz 199518Michigan 1986–1989PM10, CO↑ Ischaemic heart disease admissions (RR 1.018 IQR ↑ PM10) and with heart failure (RR 1.024 /IQR ↑ PM10 and 1.022/ IQR ↑ CO)
Burnett 199519Ontario 1983–1988Particulate sulfates2.8%↑ CVS admission/13 μg/m3
Morris 1995207 US cities 1986–1989CO↑ Heart failure admissions (RR 1.10–1.37/10 ppm ↑)
Wordley 199721Birmingham 1992–1994PM10↑ Risk of respiratory (2.4%) or cerebrovascular (2.1%) admission for 10 μg/m3
Schwartz 199722Tuscon 1997PM102.75% ↑ CVS admission/IQR ↑
CO2.79% ↑ CVS admission/IQR ↑
Ozone/SO2Little association
Burnett 19972310 Canadian cities 1981–1991CORR heart failure admission 1.065/IQR ↑
Burnett 199724Toronto 1992–1994Ozone, NO2, SO213% ↑ CVS admissions/IQR ↑ gaseous pollutants
Poloniecki 199725London 1987–1994Black smoke2.5% myocardial infarction admissions attributable, associated with angina admissions
NO2Associated with arrhythmia admissions
Schwartz 199926Eight US counties 1988–1990PM102.48% ↑ CVS admission/IQR ↑
CO2.79% ↑ CVS admission/IQR ↑