Table 1

Demographics of 128 patients with advanced heart failure according to baseline β blocker treatment

CharacteristicOn β blockerNot on β blockerP Value
Values are expressed as mean (SD) or %, except non-normally distributed variables* which are expressed as the median (interquartile range). Diuretic dose is expressed as a frusemide (furosemide) equivalent dose.
ACE/ARB, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker; BP, blood pressure; HFSS, heart failure survival score; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NS, non-significant; NT-proBNP, N terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; NYHA, New York Heart Association; Peak V̇o2, peak oxygen uptake.
Age (years)51.2 (9.5)50.0 (11.8)NS
Male sex (%)88.273.20.03
Weight (kg)90.0 (15.7)77.6 (15.9)<0.001
NYHA class2.9 (0.5)3.3 (0.6)0.001
IHD (%)46 (55%)16 (39%)NS
Atrial fibrillation (%)12 (15%)9 (22%)NS
Heart rate (beats/min)72.7 (16.0)81.6 (13.6)0.003
Systolic BP (mm Hg)112.2 (18.3)105.1 (16.7)0.04
QRS (ms)130.4 (33.1)135.3 (43.1)NS
LVEF (%)15.4 (6.9)13.4 (7.5)NS
Peak Vo2 (ml/kg/min)11.9 (3.5)10.9 (3.3)NS
HFSS*7.72 (7.15–8.31)7.43 (6.33–8.05)0.08
Serum sodium139.2 (3.5)137.9 (3.3)0.05
Serum creatinine128.7 (31.7)120.4 (39.1)NS
NT-proBNP* (pg/ml)1024 (413–2430)2103 (1117–9124)<0.001
ACE/ARB use (%)82 (95%)33 (81%)0.008
Spironolactone (%)52 (61%)23 (56%)NS
Digoxin (%)38 (45%)22 (54%)NS
Diuretic dose (mg)109.4 (83.1)129.3 (77.1)NS