Table 3

Early and late complications of cardiac contusion

Early complications
    Ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias
    Myocardial wall rupture with haemopericardium and tamponade
    Ventricular septum rupture
    Valvar insufficiencies caused by valvar lesions and papillary muscle ruptures
    Intracardiac thrombus resulting in thromboembolic events
    Coronary artery lesions with acute myocardial infarction
Late complications
    Ventricular aneurysm
    Chronic dilated cardiac dysfunction
    Cardiac dysfunction caused by structural cardiac lesions
    Constrictive pericarditis
    Ventricular arrhythmias originating from myocardial scar tissue or aneurysm