Table 1

Subject characteristics

Patients (n=45)Controls (n=21)p Value
Values are means (SD).
ACEI, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; AIIA, angiotensin II inhibitor; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in one second; FVC, forced ventilatory capacity; LVEDD, left ventricular end diastolic dimension from M mode echocardiography; LVEF, ejection fraction (%); PV̇o2, peak oxygen consumption; RER, respiratory exchange ratio (carbon dioxide production to oxygen consumption (V̇co2/V̇o2)); VE, ventilatory response.
Age (years)69 (9.6)66 (8.1) 0.18
Height (cm)171 (6.9)175 (6.9) 0.06
Weight (kg)78.6 (13.5)79.7 (10.5) 0.74
FEV1 (% expected)90.0 (17.4)116.0 (23.4)<0.0001
FVC (% expected)80.0 (22.9)95.0 (22.6) 0.0001
Sex (male:female)41:418:3
LVEDD (cm)6.5 (0.7)5.0 (0.6)<0.0001
LVEF (%)33.6 (5.4)61.0 (9.9)<0.0001
Drugs
    Furosemide (mean daily dose)83.4 (53.4)
    β Blockers (n)15
    ACEI/AIIA (n)44
    Spironolactone (n)21
New York Heart Association (functional class n)
    II27
    III18
o2 (ml/kg/min)19.7 (4.5)37.9 (8.6)<0.0001
Exercise time (s)420 (132)817 (208)<0.0001
Anaerobic threshold (ml/kg/min)14.3 (3.7)28.4 (8.4)<0.0001
RER1.05 (0.06)1.05 (0.07) 0.92
Borg/V̇E slope0.176 (0.04)0.123 (0.07) 0.001
V̇E/V̇co2 slope40.0 (6.5)26.0 (1.6)<0.0001