Table 1

Clinical characteristics of the 20 study patients

ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; F, female; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; M, male; NYHA, New York Heart Association; V̇E–V̇co2, ratio of ventilation and carbon dioxide production during exercise.
Age (years, mean (SEM))55 (3) (range 23–73)
Sex (n, M/F)18/2
LVEF (%, mean (SEM))24 (2) (range 10–40%)
NYHA class (n, I/II/III)2/10/8
Aetiology (n, ischaemic/other)9/11
V̇E–V̇co2 slope >34 (n)7
β Blockers (n)18
Digoxin (n)12
ACE inhibitors (n)18
Diuretics (n)11