Table 1

Baseline characteristics and drug treatment

Characteristics
Data are numbers (%) or mean (SD).
ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide.
*World Health Organization classification of dyspnoea (grade 2, dyspnoea when vacuum cleaning or climbing stairs to the second floor; grade 3, when walking on an even road; grade 4, at minimum exertion; grade 5, orthopnoea; grade 6, at rest).
†Geometric mean concentration and 95% confidence interval.
‡Normal ECG with absence of arrhythmias, ST deviations, Q waves, hypertrophy, and abnormal left ventricular axis according to the Minnesota code.
Demographic data
    Male/female290 (43%)/382 (57%)
    Age (years)
        50–59174 (26%)
        60–69204 (30%)
        70–79174 (26%)
        ⩾ 80120 (18%)
        Median (range)68.1 (51.2–91.3)
    Current daily smoker237 (35%)
Clinical history
    Dyspnoea grade*
        284 (13%)
        351 (8%)
        447 (7%)
        514 (2%)
        623 (3%)
        Total219 (33%)
    Ankle oedema155 (23%)
    Ischaemic heart disease96 (14%)
    Hypertension169 (25%)
    Angina83 (12%)
    Diabetes mellitus
    Insulin treated7 (1%)
    Non-insulin treated36 (5%)
Measurements
    Atrial fibrillation24 (4%)
    Heart rate (beats/min)75.4 (13.4)
    Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)144 (23.2)
    Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)86.6 (12.2)
    Ejection fraction
        ⩽ 50%77 (11%)
        ⩽ 45%58 (9%)
        ⩽ 40%38 (6%)
        ⩽ 35%21 (3%)
        Median (range)60 (10–60)
    NT-proBNP (pmol/l)†35.7 (32.8 to 38.9)
    Abnormal ECG‡197 (30%)
Drug treatment
    Loop diuretics37 (6%)
    Other diuretics82 (12%)
    ACE inhibitor42 (6%)
    Angiotensin II blocker12 (2%)
    β Blocker30 (5%)
    Calcium antagonist39 (6%)
    Nitrates26 (4%)
    Digitalis25 (4%)
    Aspirin112 (17%)