Table 2

Morphological characteristics of patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation caused by tethering

Patient numberSexAge (years)Other congenital cardiac abnormalitiesΔP syst RV−RA (mm Hg)Tricuspid annulus diameter (mm, normal <31 mm)Area-D (cm2)Fac (%)Origin of the TR jet displacedLeaflets with tethering from aberrant chordsLeaflets with short primary chords
Ant, anterior; Area-D, end diastolic area of the right ventricle obtained in the apical four chamber view (normal <25 cm2); ASD, atrial septal defect; AV/VA discordance, atrioventricular and ventriculo-arterial discordance; AV, atrioventricular; Fac, fractional area change (normal >25 cm2) defined as end diastolic area minus end systolic area divided by end diastolic area of the right ventricle; Post, posterior; RA, right atrial; RV, right ventricular; Sept, septal; syst, systolic; TGA, transposition of the great arteries; TR, tricuspid regurgitation; ΔP, difference in pressure; VA, ventriculo-arterial.
5M17Superior sinus venosus septal defect153920.148Apical++++++
6M41AV/VA discordance (l-TGA)2127.112Apical++++
7M35AV concordance/VA discordance (d-TGA)5240.948Apical+
8M62Situs inversus with mesocardia; AV/VA discordance (d-TGA)4833.069Apical++
9F43Pulmonary stenosis, ASD II453514.256Apical++++++
10F20Pulmonary stenosis303013.544Apical+++++