Table 2

 Exposure to oral glucocorticoids among cases (n = 50656) and controls (n = 50656) and risk of any cardiovascular or cerebrovascular event

ExposureCases (n = 50 656)Controls (n = 50 656)Crude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)*
*Adjusted for use of NSAIDs, HRT, antihypertensive drugs, nitrates, oral anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs, antidiabetic drugs, bronchodilators, cromoglycates, inhaled glucocorticoids, DMARDs, smoking, and BMI.
Ever used oral glucocorticoids
    Yes15 355 (30.3%)13 395 (26.4%)1.31 (1.27 to 1.35)1.25 (1.21 to 1.29)
Timing of oral glucocorticoid use
    Current use8 167 (16.1%)6 015 (11.9%)1.56 (1.50 to 1.62)1.48 (1.41 to 1.54)
    Recent use3 491 (6.9%)3 681 (7.3%)1.08 (1.02 to 1.14)1.03 (0.98 to 1.09)
    Past use3 697 (7.3%)3 699 (7.3%)1.12 (1.06 to 1.18)1.08 (1.02 to 1.14)
Current users of oral glucocorticoids (average daily dose in mg prednisolone equivalents)
    <7.5 mg/day2 211 (4.5%)1 710 (3.4%)1.46 (1.36 to 1.57)1.44 (1.34 to 1.55)
    7.5–20 mg/day2 015 (4.1%)1 627 (3.3%)1.37 (1.28 to 1.48)1.30 (1.21 to 1.40)
    ⩾20 mg2 593 (5.3%)1 735 (3.5%)1.73 (1.62 to 1.86)1.63 (1.52 to 1.75)
Quartiles of cumulative dose (in mg prednisolone equivalents)
    <500 mg1 925 (4.4%)1 362 (3.2%)1.58 (1.45 to 1.73)1.61 (1.38 to 1.88)
    500–1810 mg2 047 (4.7%)1 605 (3.7%)1.39 (1.28 to 1.51)1.34 (1.16 to 1.54)
    1810–5418 mg2 006 (4.6%)1 649 (3.8%)1.36 (1.26 to 1.47)1.19 (1.03 to 1.37)
    >5418 mg2 009 (4.6%)1 277 (3.0%)1.71 (1.57 to 1.86)1.56 (1.35 to 1.80)