Table 1

 Typical reflex syncope triggers

• Prolonged standing, especially in combination with warm temperature, confined spaces, or crowding (“church syncope”)
• Emotional circumstances, pain (for example, venepunctures, immunisation, sight of blood)
• Fasting, lack of sleep, fatigue, menstruation, illness with fever
• Micturition
• Early after intense exercise
• Hyperventilation and straining (self induced syncope)
• Stretching, coughing
• Standing quickly, arising from squat
• Rapid weight loss
• Certain medications, alcohol, and illicit drugs (must be distinguished from intoxication)