Table 2

 Traditional pointers to possible ARAS

• Recent significant worsening of longstanding hypertension, especially if associated with any rise in serum creatinine
• Rapid worsening of renal function (that is, over weeks). Gradual loss of renal function (over months and years) is more likely caused by atherosclerotic or hypertensive nephropathy
• Sudden onset anuric renal failure, when ARAS to a single functioning kidney progresses to acute occlusion
• Acute pulmonary oedema—especially in association with good left ventricular function