Table 1

 Patient characteristics according to CHF classification (n = 251)

Demographic and clinical featuresCause of dyspnoeap Value*
CHF (n = 137)Other (n = 114)
Data are presented as median (25th–75th centiles) or number.
*Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test or Fisher’s exact test as appropriate; †defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min.
AF, atrial fibrillation (first episode, paroxysmal, persistent, or permanent); BMI, body mass index; BNP, B type natriuretic peptide; CAD, coronary artery disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; JVD, jugular venous distension; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NA, not applicable; NT-proBNP, amino terminal fragment of proBNP; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PND, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea.
Men/women128/9106/81.000
Age (years)76 (69–82)69 (58–78)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)26 (24–29)26 (23–30)0.628
Arterial hypertension86550.022
Diabetes mellitus39190.035
Renal dysfunction†5321<0.001
AF6518<0.001
Known CAD8136<0.001
History of CHF6510<0.001
Symptoms of CHF
    Dyspnoea on exertion137114NA
    Orthopnoea28110.023
    PND53220.001
    Nocturnal cough50220.003
Signs of CHF
    JVD384<0.001
    Pulmonary rales448<0.001
    Third heart sound222<0.001
    Peripheral oedema40130.001
Framingham score
    Classification positive1377
    Major criteria (points)2 (1–3)0 (0–1)
    Minor criteria (points)2 (1–3)1 (1–2)
NYHA class
    I010NA
    II590NA
    III530NA
    IV250NA
Echocardiographic data
    LVEF (%)40 (28–48)59 (55–62)<0.001
    Normal function043NA
    Diastolic dysfunction2153NA
    Systolic dysfunction11618NA
Biochemical markers
    Serum creatinine (μmol/l)80 (62–115)71 (62–88)0.006
    eGFR (ml/min)69 (49–101)95 (66–142)<0.001
    BNP (ng/l)792 (363–1714)65 (10–196)<0.001
    NT-proBNP (ng/l)3275 (1398–6979)248 (77–729)<0.001