Table 1

 Clinical characteristics of 445 patients admitted emergently with heart failure for whom left ventricular function and survival data were reported

All patients (n = 445)Preserved LVSF (n = 130)Reduced LVSF (n = 315)p Value (preserved v reduced LVSF)*
Haemoglobin data were not available for four patients.
*Fisher’s exact test or two sample t test; †mean (SD); ‡anaemia defined as haemoglobin <130 g/l for men and <115 g/l for women.
ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, LVSF, left ventricular systolic function; MI, myocardial infarction.
Men222 (50%)49 (38%)173 (55%)0.001
Age (years)†71.8 (12.8)72.6 (12.4)70.5 (12.9)0.11
Co-morbidity
    Atrial fibrillation137 (31%)48 (37%)89 (28%)0.074
    Angina or MI165 (37%)40 (31%)125 (40%)0.074
    COPD44 (10%)9 (7%)35 (11%)0.16
    Diabetes84 (30%)24 (33%)60 (29%)0.53
    Valve disease21 (5%)13 (10%)8 (3%)0.001
    Anaemia‡194 (44%)64 (49%)130 (42%)0.15
    Peptic ulcer disease107 (24%)30 (23%)79 (25%)0.58
Discharge treatment
    Loop diuretic387 (87%)117 (90%)27 (86%)0.21
    Thiazide diuretic22 (5%)7 (5%)15 (5%)0.78
    ACE inhibitor330 (74%)85 (65%)245 (78%)0.008
    β Blocker161 (36%)50 (38%)111 (35%)0.52
    Spironolactone82 (18%)16 (12%)66 (21%)0.027
    Digoxin95 (21%)30 (23%)65 (21%)0.57
    Calcium channel blocker87 (20%)31 (24%)56 (18%)0.148
    Nitrate137 (31%)35 (27%)102 (32%)0.25
    Aspirin265 (60%)59 (46%)207 (66%)0.0001
    Warfarin108 (24%)45 (35%)63 (20%)0.001