Table 3

 Causes of pericardial effusion and results of subxiphoid pericardiostomy in 368 patients

Cause of pericardial effusionNumber of patients (% of total)Recurrence (% of diagnostic group)Constriction (% of diagnostic group)Mortality
30 day1 year
*†‡In comparison of the rate of recurrence between patient groups by χ2 test, p>0.05 between groups with the same symbol and p<0.05 between groups with a different symbol; §p<0.03 for the rates of recurrence and constriction in patients with tuberculous pericarditis by McNemar test; ¶p = 0.09 versus the constriction rate in patients with tuberculous pericarditis by Fisher’s exact test.
Uraemic pericarditis158 (43%)22 (14%)*010
Idiopathic and undefined pericarditis81 (22%)2 (2%)†020
Malignant processes invading the pericardium51 (14%)2 (4%)†0021
Tuberculous pericarditis37 (10%)11 (30%)‡5 (14%)§00
Non-tuberculous bacterial pericarditis18 (5%)06 (33%)¶00
Trauma15 (4%)0000
    Blunt thoracic injuries40000
    Invasive cardiac intervention110000
Others8 (2%)0000
Total36837 (10%)11 (3%)321