Table 2

 Angiographic projections and optimal visualisation of left and right coronary artery segments

Coronary artery segmentLAO 40–50°, caudal 25–40° (spider)AP/RAO 5–15°, caudal 30°RAO 30–45°, caudal 30–40°AP/RAO 5–10°, cranial 35–45°LAO 30–45°, cranial 25–35°Lateral ± caudocranial 10–30°LAO 45–60°RAO 30–45°
– View not recommended; + occasionally useful; ++ very useful; +++ ideal view.
AP, anteroposterior; LAD, left anterior descending; LAO, left anterior oblique; LCX, left circumflex; LIMA, left internal mammary; OM, obtuse marginal; PDA, posterior descending artery; PLV, posterior left ventricular; RAO, right anterior oblique; RCA, right coronary artery.
LM ostium++++++++++
LM bifurcation++++++++
LAD proximal++++++++++++
LAD mid+++++++++
LAD distal+++++++++++
LCX proximal+++++++
LCX distal++++++++++++
OM bifurcation++++++++
RCA proximal++++++
RCA mid+++++++++
RCA distal/crux++++++++
LIMA anastomosis++++