Table 3

 Echocardiographic and tissue Doppler echocardiographic parameters of patients with dyspnoea in the emergency department

Non-HF (n = 41)Acute HF (n = 51)p Value
*The diameters were corrected by the body surface area (m2).
A, peak late diastolic blood flow velocity; Aa, peak late diastolic velocity over mitral annulus in tissue Doppler imaging; E, peak early diastolic blood flow velocity; Ea, peak early diastolic velocity over mitral annulus in tissue Doppler imaging; LV, left ventricle; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; Sa: the peak systolic velocity over mitral annulus in tissue Doppler imaging.
Left atrium*27.6 (6.4)32.8 (7.6)0.001
Interventricular septum*8.1 (1.6)8.1 (1.4)0.951
LV posterior wall*8.0 (1.6)8.3 (1.3)0.456
LV end-diastolic dimension*34.5 (5.5)41.3 (5.9)<0.001
LV end-systolic dimension*21.9 (5.2)30.2 (7.0)<0.001
LV ejection fraction (%)64.9 (12.1)50.4 (16.4)<0.001
Mitral E flow (cm/s)74.9 (24.3)109.9 (39.7)<0.001
Mitral A flow (cm/s)88.4 (48.9)80.7 (42.5)0.811
E:A ratio0.88 (0.45)1.29 (0.78)0.007
Tissue Doppler parameters
    Mean Sa (cm/s)8.3 (2.1)6.3 (2.1)<0.001
        Sa medial (cm/s)7.8 (2.0)5.8 (1.9)<0.001
        Sa lateral (cm/s)8.8 (2.7)6.9 (2.5)0.001
    Mean Ea (cm/s)8.6 (3.3)6.4 (2.4)<0.001
        Ea medial (cm/s)7.9 (3.5)5.9 (2.0)<0.001
        Ea lateral (cm/s)9.4 (3.8)7.3 (3.0)0.003
    Mean Aa (cm/s)9.5 (3.6)6.3 (3.4)0.001
        Aa medial (cm/s)8.6 (4.1)5.5 (3.7)0.001
        Aa lateral (cm/s)10.4 (3.9)6.8 (3.9)<0.001
    E:Ea for overall9.3 (3.3)18.7 (7.9)<0.001
        LVEF⩾0.59.1 (3.4)17.6 (8.1)<0.001
        LVEF<0.510.7 (2.6)20.1 (7.7)<0.001