Table 1

 Characteristics of patients in GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) at baseline and of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the EFFECT (enhanced feedback for effective cardiac treatment) study on admission to and at discharge alive from hospitals in Ontario, 1999–2001

CharacteristicGRACE development cohort (n = 15007)EFFECT AMI
Total cohort (n = 11510)Alive at discharge (n = 10242)
Data are mean (SD) or percentages unless otherwise indicated.
*Initial cardiac enzyme level for GRACE cohort, peak levels for EFFECT patients.
†The risk calculator (appendix 1) uses mg/dl for serum creatinine, not μmol/l. To convert into mg/dl divide by 88.4.
BP, blood pressure; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; IQR, interquartile range; MI, myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous catheter based intervention.
Age (years)
    Median (IQR)66 (55.5–74.6)69.7 (57.8–78.6)68.2 (56.6–77.4)
    Mean (SD)65 (13)68.1 (13.4)66.9 (13.5)
Women33.2%35.9%34.3%
Medical history
    CABG13.4%6.7%6.7%
    Diabetes23.5%25.7%25.1%
    Hypertension58.2%45.5%45.1%
    MI32.0%23.1%22.5%
    PCI15.3%3.3%3.4%
    Hyperlipidaemia45.6%30.2%31.7%
    Prior or current smoking57.8%71.2%71.5%
    Congestive heart failure10.1%4.9%4.0%
On presentation
    Heart rate (beats/min)79 (20)85 (25)84 (24)
    Systolic BP (mm Hg)143 (29)146 (32)149 (31)
    Serum creatinine (μmol/l)†106 (71)109 (71)103 (62)
    Killip class
        I84.2%72.8%76.4%
        II12.7%18.6%17.3%
        III2.7%6.6%5.6%
        IV0.4%2.0%0.7%
    Cardiac arrest1.2%2.8%1.7%
    Cardiac enzyme positive*33.6%96.4%96.9%
    ST segment depression32.1%43.0%42.2%
Hospital length of stay (days) median (IQR)8 (5–12)6 (5–10)7 (5–11)