Table 2

 Grading of aortic regurgitation (AR)

EROA, effective regurgitant orifice area; LV, left ventricle; LVF, left ventricular function; LVOT, left ventricular outflow tract; PHT, pressure half-time; Reg, regurgitant.
*At a Nyquist limit of 50–60 cm/s.
†Quantitative parameters should be viewed with caution and only in the context of the other signs of severity because of the intrinsic limitations of quantitative measurement techniques.
Specific signs for AR severity Vena contracta <0.3 cm*Intermediate valuesVena contracta >0.6 cm*
Central jet width <25% of LVOT*Intermediate valuesCentral jet ⩾65% of LVOT*
No or brief early diastolic flow reversal in descending aortaHolodiastolic flow reversal in descending aorta
Flail or wide coaptation defect
Supportive signs PHT >500 msPHT <200 ms
No/minimal flow convergence*Large flow convergence*
Moderate or greater LV enlargement
Quantitative parameters†
Reg volume (ml/beat)<3030–4445–59⩾60
Reg fraction (%)<3030–3940–49⩾50
EROA (cm2)<0.100.10–0.190.20–0.29⩾0.30