Table 1

 Baseline characteristics of South Asian and white patients with acute myocardial infarction

1988–92 (n = 844)1993–97 (n = 983)1998–2002 (n = 813)p Value (linear trend)
Values are number (%) for categorical variables and median (interquartile range) for continuous variables. Year fitted as a continuous variable. P values from logistic regression for categorical variables and Spearman rank correlation for continuous variables.
*Glucose of non-diabetic patients was not measured before 1993.
MI, myocardial infarction.
Clinical characteristics
EthnicityAsian188 (22.3%)277 (28.2%)303 (37.3%)<0.0001
White640 (75.8%)673 (68.5%)469 (57.7%)<0.0001
Age (years)Asian56 (50–62)60 (51–57)60 (50–67)0.01
White65 (57–72)67 (58–74)66 (56–76)0.0007
MenAsian160 (85.1%)225 (81.2%)245 (80.9%)0.16
White447 (69.8%)465 (69.1%)309 (65.9%)0.08
HypertensionAsian61 (32.5%)81 (29.9%)126 (41.7%)0.05
White196 (30.8%)209 (31.8%)187 (40.3%)0.002
DiabetesAsian76 (40.4%)120 (43.5%)137 (45.4%)0.17
White85 (13.3%)96 (14.4%)81 (17.3%)0.10
Current smokingAsian80 (42.6%)96 (35.8%)120 (40.1%)0.49
White362 (57.1%)319 (49.3%)228 (49.7%)0.001
Previous MIAsian48 (25.5%)55 (19.9%)38 (12.7%)<0.0001
White172 (26.9%)123 (18.3%)46 (9.9%)<0.0001
Admission drugs
AspirinAsian15 (8.7%)65 (23.9%)114 (38.5%)<0.0001
White71 (12.4%)140 (21.2%)153 (33.3%)<0.0001
DiureticsAsian18 (10.5%)34 (12.7%)30 (10.1%)0.42
White97 (16.9%)119 (18.1%)77 (16.6%)0.77
β blockersAsian28 (16.4%)30 (11.2%)53 (17.8%)0.60
White87 (15.1%)81 (12.4%)60 (12.9%)0.15
Biochemistry
Serum potassium (mmol/l)Asian3.9 (3.6–4.3)4.2 (3.9–4.5)4.1 (3.8–4.4)0.0004
White3.9 (3.6–4.2)4.2 (3.9–4.5)4.1 (3.9–4.4)<0.0001
Glucose (mmol/l) (non-diabetic)*Asian7.7 (6.5–9.5)7.3 (6–8.8)0.19
White7.4 (6.5–9)7.5 (6.2–8.9)0.02
Glucose (mmol/l) (diabetic)Asian11.5 (8.8–18.9)14.6 (10.7–19.6)12.8 (9.2–17.3)0.02
White15.5 (12.6–19.2)14.3 (10.4–17.2)13.2 (10.8–17.8)0.11
MI characteristics
ST elevationAsian163 (86.7%)234 (84.8%)223 (77.2%)0.001
White564 (88.4%)558 (83.3%)341 (77.2%)<0.0001
Q wave MIAsian146 (77.7%)203 (74.6%)174 (59.0%)<0.0001
White498 (78.3%)469 (71.0%)252 (55.4%)<0.0001
Creatine kinaseAsian1394 (622–2235)1021 (495–1841)1045 (548–1961)0.01
White1237 (526–2050)998 (512–1701)972 (509–1585)0.0001
Thrombolysis
Thrombolytic receivedAsian138 (73.4%)208 (75.4%)188 (62.5%)0.002
White440 (68.8%)468 (70.2%)261 (56.0%)<0.0001
Door to needle time (min)Asian104 (58–155)77 (50–127)60 (29–118)<0.0001
White90 (60–137)63 (43–123)60 (30–120)<0.0001
Pain to needle time (min)Asian240 (168–350)200 (139–360)211 (125–415)0.13
White225 (150–360)238 (140–399)210 (130–403)0.14