Table 2

 Pathological and physiological conditions in which late sodium current is increased

Acquired pathological conditions
1. Hypoxia32
2. Ischaemic metabolites (amphiphiles)33 34
3. Oxygen free radicals35
4. Heart failure (human and dog myocytes)30 36 37
5. Post-myocardial infarction “remodelled” myocytes38
Physiological conditions
6. Rat fetal ventricular myocytes39
7. Purkinje fibres and M cells from canine hearts27
8. Myocytes from subendocardium and epicardium of guinea pig hearts2 40