Table 2

‚ÄÉHeart failure: symptoms and signs

SymptomsSigns
Dyspnoea (on exertion, nocturnal)Oedema, ascites
Reduced exercise toleranceElevated jugular venous pressure
Fatigue, lethargyCrepitations or wheeze
OrthopnoeaTachycardia
Nocturnal coughThird heart sound, murmurs
WheezeHepatomegaly
AnorexiaDisplaced apex beat
Confusion/delirium (elderly)Cachexia and muscle wasting