Table 3

 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association stages of heart failurew15

AHigh risk, no symptomsHypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus
BStructural heart disease, no symptomsLeft ventricular hypertrophy, asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction
CStructural heart disease, previous or current symptomsDyspnoea or fatigue due to heart failure
DStructural heart disease, refractory symptomsPatients with end stage heart failure