Table 6

 Risk factors for the occurrence of heart failure in three population based studies15w13 w31

Risk factorFramingham heart studyCardiovascular health studyRotterdam study
MenWomenMenWomen
RR (95% CI)PARRR (95% CI)PARRRPARRR (95% CI)RR (95% CI)
CI, confidence interval; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; MI, myocardial infarction; PAR, population attributable risk (%); RR, relative risk.
Hypertension2.1 (1.3 to 3.2)393.4 (1.7 to 6.7)591.4131.0 (0.5 to 1.9)2.6 (1.6 to 4.2)
MI6.3 (4.6 to 8.7)346.0 (4.4 to 8.3)131.9 (1.1 to 3.6)1.8 (0.9 to 3.5)
Angina pectoris1.4 (1.0 to 2.0)51.7 (1.2 to 2.3)51.3 (0.6 to 2.8)1.3 (0.7 to 2.6)
Diabetes mellitus1.8 (1.3 to 2.6)63.7 (2.7 to 5.2)121.882.1 (1.0 to 4.4)1.6 (0.8 to 3.2)
LVH2.2 (1.5 to 3.2)42.9 (2.0 to 4.1)52.361.6 (0.4 to 6.7)0.8 (0.1 to 5.5)
Valvular disease2.5 (1.7 to 3.6)72.1 (1.5 to 2.9)8
Atrial fibrillation2.121.5 (0.5 to 5.1)0.6 (0.1 to 4.6)
COPD1.460.8 (0.3 to 2.6)3.2 (1.7 to 7.4)