Table 3

 Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the number of missing teeth as either continuous, categorical covariate or fractional polynomials (fp) for cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential confounders

HR* (95% CI)p ValueMissing teethHR* (95% CI)p ValueFractional polynomial†HR* (95% CI)p Value
*Adjusted for age at examination, year of birth, gender, smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, father’s socioeconomic status
†x, (the number of missing teeth+1)/10; fp1, the first fractional polynomial term; fp2, the second fractional polynomial term.
‡Test for trend.
§Likelihood ratio test for the interaction between examined ages and number of missing teeth.
CVD (n = 509)
All students ⩽30 years
For each additional missing tooth1.01 (0.99 to 1.03)0.3720–410.024‡
5–91.14 (0.94 to 1.39)0.186fp1(x−0.51)2.08 (1.19 to 3.62)0.010
9+1.35 (1.03 to 1.77)0.030fp2(◯2−0.26)0.72 (0.54 to 0.96)0.023
Interaction§0.097
Students 16–19 years
For each additional missing tooth1.05 (1.01 to 1.10)0.0230–41.000.003‡
5–91.26 (0.87 to 1.82)0.222fp1(◯3–0.12)2.12 (1.34 to 3.36)0.001
9+2.24 (1.36 to 3.70)0.002fp2(◯3*ln(x)+0.08)0.33 (0.13 to 0.87)0.024
Students 20–23 years
For each additional missing tooth1.00 (0.97 to 1.04)0.9150–40.600‡
5–91.05 (0.78 to 1.46)0.684fp1(◯−2–4.10)1.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.129
9+1.10 (0.68 to 1.82)0.680fp2(◯3–0.12)0.95 (0.85 to 1.06)0.326
Students 24–30 years
For each additional missing tooth1.00 (0.97 to 1.03)0.9790–41.000.325‡
5–91.17 (0.82 to 1.67)0.390fp1(◯−2–2.57)0.94 (0.87 to 1.02)0.134
9+1.20 (0.79 to 1.85)0.394fp2(◯2*ln(x)+1.21)0.97 (0.94 to 1.01)0.131
CHD (n = 349)
All students ⩽30 years
For each additional missing tooth1.01 (0.98 to 1.03)0.6610–41.000.160‡
5–91.18 (0.94 to 1.50)0.159fp1(◯2–0.26)1.65 (0.98 to 2.77)0.060
9+1.19 (0.84 to 1.69)0.319fp2(◯3–0.13)0.78 (0.60 to 1.01)0.064
Interaction§0.122
Students 16–19 years
For each additional missing tooth1.04 (0.99 to 1.10)0.1000–41.000.019‡
5–91.31 (0.86 to 2.00)0.215fp1(◯3–0.12)1.94 (1.14 to 3.31)0.015
9+2.04 (1.11 to 3.72)0.020fp2(◯3*ln(x)+0.08)0.38 (0.13 to 1.11)0.076
Students 20–23 years
For each additional missing tooth1.00 (0.96 to 1.05)0.9630–41.000.538‡
5–91.14 (0.80 to 1.67)0.439fp1(◯3–0.12)1.17 (0.80 to 1.73)0.415
9+1.08 (0.59 to 1.98)0.808fp2(◯3*ln(x)+0.08)0.82 (0.53 to 1.25)0.349
Students 24–30 years
For each additional missing tooth0.99 (0.95 to 1.03)0.6280–41.000.796‡fp1(◯−2–2.57)0.95 (0.86 to 1.06)0.363
5–91.09 (0.70 to 1.70)0.712fp2(◯2*ln(x)+1.21)0.98 (0.94 to 1.02)0.338
9+0.87 (0.48 to 1.56)0.642
Stroke (n = 102)
All students ⩽30 years
For each additional missing tooth1.02 (0.98 to 1.06)0.4090–41.000.222‡
5–90.88 (0.55 to 1.41)0.599fp1(◯–2–3.88)1.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.236
9+1.64 (0.96 to 2.80)0.072fp2(◯3–0.13)1.01 (0.94 to 1.08)0.763
Interaction§0.606
Students 16–19 years
For each additional missing tooth1.04 (0.93 to 1.17)0.4850–41.000.478‡
5–90.95 (0.37 to 2.47)0.917fp1(◯3–0.12)1.83 (0.64 to 5.19)0.258
9+1.96 (0.56 to 6.84)0.292fp2(◯3*ln(x)+0.08)0.49 (0.09 to 2.64)0.410
Students 20–23 years
For each additional missing tooth0.96 (0.87 to 1.06)0.4310–41.000.166‡
5–90.56 (0.25 to 1.33)0.201fp1(◯–2–4.10)0.98 (0.96 to 1.00)0.036
9+0.53 (0.13 to 2.23)0.387fp2(x–0.49)0.2 (0.04 to 1.05)0.058
Students 24–30 years
For each additional missing tooth1.04 (0.98 to 1.09)0.1680–41.000.010‡
5–91.43 (0.66 to 3.11)0.369fp1(x−0.51)0.84 (0.70 to 1.01)0.067
9+2.79 (1.30 to 5.97)0.008fp2(◯2–0.26)0.93 (0.86 to 1.01)0.074
Cancer (n = 549)
All students ⩽30 years
For each additional missing tooth1.00 (0.98 to 1.02)0.8580–41.000.763‡
5–90.93 (0.76 to 1.12)0.442fp1(◯–2–3.88)0.98 (0.94 to 1.02)0.374
9+1.01 (0.76 to 1.35)0.919fp2(◯2*ln(x)+2.63)0.99 (0.97 to 1.01)0.381
Interaction§0.455
Students 16–19 years
For each additional missing tooth1.02 (0.99 to 1.07)0.2270–41.000.656‡
5–90.96 (0.70 to 1.30)0.776fp1(◯–2–4.16)0.94 (0.87 to 1.02)0.163
9+1.23 (0.76 to 2.00)0.400fp2(◯2*ln(x)+2.97)0.97 (0.94 to 1.01)0.167
Students 20–23 years
For each additional missing tooth0.99 (0.95 to 1.03)0.7020–41.000.515‡
5–90.98 (0.71 to 1.34)0.885fp1(◯2–0.24)0.8 (0.45 to 1.44)0.461
9+0.80 (0.45 to 1.41)0.438fp2(◯3–0.12)1.08 (0.88 to 1.32)0.462
Students 24–30 years
For each additional missing tooth0.99 (0.95 to 1.02)0.5020–41.000.497‡
5–90.77 (0.52 to 1.15)0.197fp1(◯3–0.24)0.86 (0.66 to 1.11)0.253
9+0.93 (0.59 to 1.48)0.752fp2(◯3*ln(x)+0.11)1.14 (0.89 to 1.46)0.288