Table 2 Analysis of normally distributed echocardiographic variables by control and athlete groups
VariableControl group (nā€Š=ā€Š30)Athletes (nā€Š=ā€Š36)p Value*
Ejection fraction (%)64 (5.2)65 (3.4)NS
Ea (cm/s)17.8 (3)18.8 (2.3)NS
LVEDD (cm)4.8 (0.4)5.6 (0.5)<0.001
Peak E velocity (m/s)74.4 (14.5)70.7 (14.6)NS
E/A ratio1.8 (0.4)1.9 (0.4)NS
Stiffness index1.48 (0.3)1.17 (0.34)0.016
  • Results are shown as mean (SD).

  • *Adjusted for heart rate.

  • A, late transmitral filling velocity; E, early transmitral filling velocity; Ea, early diastolic velocity, was calculated as the mean of Ea measurements at four sites around the mitral annulus; LVEDD, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter.