Table 2 Age-specific, age-adjusted (within age group) relative risks (95% confidence intervals) and population attributable risk fraction (PAR)* of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and ischaemic heart disease according to income and cardiovascular risk factors: 575 377 male public servants in South Korea, 1994–2003
Deaths from all causesDeaths from cardiovascular diseaseDeaths from ischaemic heart disease
30–4445–5455–6430–4445–5455–6430–4445–5455–64
Income
    High1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    Low1.70 (1.60 to 1.80)1.82 (1.73 to 1.91)1.51 (1.43 to 1.60)1.44 (1.25 to 1.67)1.62 (1.44 to 1.82)1.38 (1.22 to 1.55)1.40 (1.10 to 1.79)1.28 (1.04 to 1.57)1.22 (0.97 to 1.53)
Cigarette smoking
    Never1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    Quit1.03 (0.93 to 1.14)1.09 (1.01 to 1.19)1.28 (1.17 to 1.39)1.27 (0.97 to 1.68)0.94 (0.77 to 1.14)1.09 (0.91 to 1.31)1.53 (0.96 to 2.45)1.13 (0.79 to 1.62)1.37 (0.98 to 1.93)
    ⩽10 cigarettes per day1.62 (1.46 to 1.79)1.67 (1.53 to 1.81)1.79 (1.64 to 1.96)1.88 (1.44 to 2.47)1.66 (1.37 to 2.01)1.70 (1.40 to 2.05)1.90 (1.18 to 3.07)1.63 (1.13 to 2.36)1.56 (1.07 to 2.28)
    11–20 cigarettes per day1.62 (1.48 to 1.78)1.70 (1.58 to 1.84)1.93 (1.77 to 2.09)2.05 (1.61 to 2.60)1.63 (1.37 to 1.94)1.82 (1.53 to 2.17)2.24 (1.47 to 3.42)1.90 (1.37 to 2.63)1.90 (1.35 to 2.68)
    >20 cigarettes per day1.67 (1.52 to 1.84)1.72 (1.59 to 1.87)1.99 (1.81 to 2.19)2.18 (1.70 to 2.81)1.63 (1.35 to 1.96)1.71 (1.38 to 2.11)2.51 (1.62 to 3.89)2.18 (1.56 to 3.07)1.93 (1.30 to 2.87)
    PAR (%) for current smoking25.2 (21.7 to 28.8)23.8 (21.1 to 26.5)23.5 (20.9 to 26.2)31.7 (23.1 to 40.3)26.7 (20.4 to 33.1)24.1 (18.3 to 29.8)31.1 (16.5 to 45.7)28.8 (17.7 to 40.0)21.6 (10.7 to 32.4)
Systolic/diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)
    <140 and <901.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    140–159 or 90–991.30 (1.22 to 1.39)1.20 (1.14 to 1.27)1.13 (1.06 to 1.20)1.81 (1.53 to 2.14)1.88 (1.65 to 2.16)1.83 (1.58 to 2.12)1.77 (1.35 to 2.32)1.76 (1.39 to 2.21)1.84 (1.41 to 2.40)
    ⩾160 or ⩾1002.16 (1.95 to 2.39)1.66 (1.55 to 1.77)1.56 (1.46 to 1.67)5.64 (4.65 to 6.85)4.11 (3.56 to 4.73)3.44 (2.96 to 3.99)3.31 (2.25 to 4.86)2.90 (2.22 to 3.79)2.86 (2.15 to 3.79)
    PAR (%) for hypertension9.7 (7.7 to 11.7)11.4 (9.2 to 13.6)13.0 (10.1 to 15.9)27.6 (22.3 to 32.9)37.6 (32.4 to 42.7)40.8 (34.9 to 46.7)17.6 (8.8 to 26.4)31.7 (22.5 to 40.8)35.9 (24.6 to 47.3)
Serum total cholesterol (mmol/l)
    <4.11.21 (1.13 to 1.31)1.46 (1.37 to 1.56)1.35 (1.25 to 1.46)1.04 (0.85 to 1.27)1.18 (0.99 to 1.40)1.17 (0.98 to 1.40)0.99 (0.69 to 1.42)0.72 (0.50 to 1.05)1.07 (0.74 to 1.54)
    4.1–5.11.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    5.2–6.11.02 (0.95 to 1.10)0.91 (0.86 to 0.96)0.95 (0.89 to 1.01)1.38 (1.16 to 1.64)1.10 (0.96 to 1.27)1.04 (0.90 to 1.20)1.54 (1.14 to 2.08)1.25 (0.98 to 1.59)1.28 (0.98 to 1.68)
    ⩾6.21.28 (1.15 to 1.42)1.05 (0.97 to 1.14)1.10 (1.01 to 1.19)1.92 (1.52 to 2.42)1.84 (1.56 to 2.17)1.45 (1.22 to 1.73)3.04 (2.14 to 4.32)2.08 (1.57 to 2.76)1.98 (1.44 to 2.70)
    PAR (%) for high cholesterol0.8 (–0.2 to 1.7)–0.7 (–1.6 to 0.2)0.3 (–0.8 to 1.4)4.1 (1.3 to 6.9)6.6 (3.9 to 9.3)4.6 (1.8 to 7.3)9.4 (4.1 to 14.8)9.7 (4.6 to 14.7)8.4 (3.0 to 13.9)
Fasting serum glucose (mmol/l)
    <7.01.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    ⩾7.02.56 (2.25 to 2.92)1.97 (1.82 to 2.14)1.95 (1.80 to 2.11)2.21 (1.56 to 3.11)1.83 (1.50 to 2.25)2.13 (1.80 to 2.53)2.45 (1.40 to 4.28)1.78 (1.23 to 2.57)2.34 (1.71 to 3.19)
    PAR (%)2.7 (2.0 to 3.4)4.0 (3.2 to 4.8)6.1 (5.1 to 7.2)1.4 (–0.2 to 3.0)2.7 (0.8 to 4.5)6.4 (4.1 to 8.8)1.2 (–1.5 to 3.8)2.4 (−0.8 to 5.6)7.5 (3.0 to 12.1)
Four risk factors (RF)†
    No RF1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    1 or more RF1.73 (1.60 to 1.86)1.64 (1.54 to 1.76)1.72 (1.59 to 1.86)2.73 (2.19 to 3.40)2.75 (2.28 to 3.32)3.78 (2.98 to 4.80)2.79 (1.92 to 4.05)2.76 (1.97 to 3.88)3.84 (2.44 to 6.04)
    PAR (%)33.3 (28.8 to 37.7)30.3 (26.2 to 34.5)36.7 (32.0 to 41.4)55.4 (46.1 to 64.8)54.9 (46.6 to 63.2)67.5 (59.8 to 75.3)53.9 (38.0 to 69.9)56.3 (42.0 to 70.7)71.3 (57.6 to 85.0)
  • *PAR for each risk factor is adjusted for age, income, and other three cardiovascular risk factors. PAR for four risk factors is adjusted for age and income. †Four risk factors refer to current smoking, hypertension (systolic blood pressure⩾140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure⩾90 mm Hg), high cholesterol (⩾6.2 mmol/l), and high serum glucose (⩾7.0 mmol/l).