Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the patient groups
TotalHighlyModeratelyLessp Value
No2394610588
Age (years)43 (13)44 (15)43 (12)42 (12)0.336
Gender (female:male)121:11823:2353:5245:430.991
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)132 (11)130 (12)133 (11)132 (11)0.212
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)76 (7)77 (8)77 (7)75 (7)0.279
ComplicationsHT 16, HL 11HT 2, HL 3HT 7, HL 3HT 7, HL 30.776
DM 9DM 1DM 5DM 3
Beta-blockers (n)2129100.393
Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)
    Initial64 (7)64 (7)64 (7)64 (6)0.863
    4-year63 (6)62 (6)*64 (6)64 (6)0.132
    Latest63 (6)61 (6)*63 (6)*64 (6)0.011†
Left ventricular diastolic dimension (mm)
    Initial46 (4)46 (4)45 (4)45 (4)0.206
    4-year46 (4)48 (3)46 (4)45 (4)0.004†
    Latest46 (4)48 (3)46 (4)46 (4)0.001†
PVCs (beats/day)
    Initial12 289 (12 238)33 197 (10 164)11 474 (4296)2323 (1436)<0.001†
    4-year12 786 (11 880)30 856 (12 310)12 645 (6003)3510 (2214)<0.001†
    Latest13 568 (12 961)32 499 (14 219)13 698 (6961)3516 (2317)<0.001†
Day-to-day variability of PVCs (beats/day)
    Initial2420 (2935)6998 (3057)2197 (1578)296 (234)<0.001†
    4-year2672 (2868)6582 (3234)2246 (1428)372 (282)<0.001†
    Latest2486 (2685)7029 (3167)2145 (1522)321 (256)<0.001†
NSVT (>3 beats, %)
    Initial18.834.815.214.80.008†
    4-year15.139.111.46.8<0.001†
    Latest20.139.116.114.80.016†
  • Initial, 4-year and latest indicate the evaluation time points.

  • *p<0.05 versus the data during the initial evaluation.

  • †Statistically significant differences among the three groups.

  • DM, diabetis mellitus; HL, hyperlipidaemia; HT, hypertension; NSVT, presence of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia; PVC, premature ventricular contraction.