Table 1

Daily time-series studies with temperature exposures and myocardial infarction (MI) outcomes: description of studies

First author and year of publicationPopulation/data sourceLocation and time periodNumber of MI events included (mean MIs/day)Main temperature exposure variable(s)Potential confounders includedMI ascertainmentLags considered (days)
Studies of fatal and non-fatal events
Gerber 200614County medical care registersOlmsted County, USA 1979–20022676 (0.3)Maximum temperatureAnnual population, calendar year, season, rain, snowfallDiagnoses compatible with MI extracted and validated using cardiac pain, biomarker, and ECG criteriaNone
Wang 200615Ambulance service centre dataHiroshima, Japan 1993–20023755 (1.0)Mean temperature, humidity-adjusted temperatureAtmospheric pressureDiagnosis based on anamnestic, clinical, laboratory and ECG criteriaNone
Enquselassie 199316MONICA morbidity registry (covering ages <70 years)Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia 1985–903889 (1.9)Maximum temperatureCalendar month, rainfallNon-fatal definite MI and fatal MI/sudden coronary death, based on MONICA ECG, symptom and enzyme criteria42None
Ohlson 199117Single clinic diagnosis register (ages <70)Orebro, Sweden 1985–7 (cold seasons only)357 (0.6)Windchill-adjusted temperature (as measured at 7 pm)Day of week, snowfall, atmospheric pressureRecords with ICD8 code 410.10, 410.99, or ICD9 code 410A/B/W/XNone
Barnett 20051824 MONICA morbidity registries (covering ages 35–64 years)Europe, China, USA, Australia 1980–9587 410 (0.4–2.8 by location)Mean temperatureSeason and trend, day of week, humidityNon-fatal definite MI and fatal definite/possible MI/unclassifiable event based on MONICA ECG, symptom and enzyme criteria420–14 inclusive
Morabito 200519Hospitalisations database (Florentine area)Florence, Italy 1998–20022683 (1.5)Hours of severe discomfort (based on extremes of apparent and windchill temperature indices)Stratified by seasonRecords with ICD9 = 410–410.920–3 inclusive
Ebi 200420Hospitalisations data (covering all non-federal hospitals)Three counties in California, USA 1993–8283 031 (4.5–39.4 by location)Minimum and maximum temperatureSeason and trendRecords with ICD9 code 4100, 7, 14, 30
Koken 200321Hospital admissions data (11 hospitals, covering ages 65+ years)Denver county, USA 1993–7 (July and August only)Not reportedMaximum temperature, dew point temperatureSeason and trend, day of week, air pollution variablesPrimary discharge diagnosis (ICD9 = 410.XX)0–4 inclusive
Messner 200222Hospital and GP records, and death certificates data (ages 25–64)Northern Sweden 1985–923322 (approx 0.9†)Temperature, change in temperature from previous daySeason, humidity, air pressure, change in humidity and air pressure from previous daySuspected cases validated using symptom, ECG, and enzyme marker dataNone
Danet 199923Lille-WHO MONICA morbidity registry (covering ages 25–64 years)Nord district, France 1985–943314 (approx 0.9†)Mean temperatureAnnual population, mean atmospheric pressure, calendar yearNon-fatal definite MIs and fatal definite/possible MIs, based on MONICA ECG, symptom and enzyme criteria42None
Fatal events only
Dilaveris 200624Death certificate dataAthens territory, Greece 20013126 (8.6)Daily mean/minimum/maximum temperatureAtmospheric pressure, relative humidity, season (based on calendar date)Death certificates with ICD10 codes of I20.0–4, I21.9, I22.0, I22.1, I22.8, I22.9Mean of 0, 7
Sharovsky 200425Death registry dataSao Paulo, Brazil 1996–812 007 (16.4)Mean temperatureSeason and trend, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, day of week, holidays, influenza levels, air pollution variablesDeath certificates with MI (ICD10 = I21) listed as primary cause0, and moving average of up to previous 7 days
Rossi 199926Vital statistics department mortality dataMilan, Italy 1985–9Approx 1600* (0.9)Mean temperatureSeason and trend, relative humidity, day of week, holidays, respiratory infection epidemics, pollution variablesDeaths with ICD9 codes of 410Different lags considered, exact strategy unclear
  • *Derived from reported mean daily rate, and length of period under study; †derived from reported total number of events, and reported length of study.