Table 1

Baseline characteristics

All patientsMigraine groupp Values*Migraine with auraMigraine without aurap Values
Patients6031509654
Age (years)51±12 (16–84)51±11 (26–77)0.6550±11 (26–74)53±11 (29–77)0.07
Female237 (39%)69 (46%)0.0547 (49%)22 (41%)0.39
Height (cm)173±9172±90.73172±9173±80.51
Weight (kg)76±1576±140.9175±1577±130.31
Body mass index (kg/m2)25.5±4.125.4±3.60.9625.2±3.626±40.3
Atrial septal anatomy
 Left atrial size (mm)37±637±70.6336±638±100.16
 PFO only381 (63%)90 (60%)0.4962 (65%)28 (52%)0.16
 PFO and atrial septal aneurysm222 (37%)60 (40%)0.3234 (35%)26 (48%)0.22
Right-to-left shunt
 Grade 115 (2%)5 (3%)0.545 (5%)0 (0%)0.16
 Grade 2101 (17%)23 (15%)0.715 (16%)8 (15%)1
 Grade 3487 (81%)122 (81%)0.976 (79%)46 (85%)0.39
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Arterial hypertension192 (32%)43 (27%)0.3626 (27%)17 (31%)0.59
 Diabetes mellitus26 (4%)4 (3%)0.352 (2%)2 (4%)0.62
 Smoking history185 (31%)45 (30%)0.7632 (33%)13 (24%)0.27
 Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.1±1.15.2±1.00.185.3±1.15.2±0.80.49
Embolic index event
 Ischaemic stroke347 (57%)89 (59%)0.5152 (56%)14 (26%)0.12
 Transient ischaemic attack222 (37%)54 (36%)0.740 (42%)37 (68%)0.08
 Peripheral embolism34 (6%)7 (5%)0.684 (4%)3 (6%)0.7
Number of prior embolic events
 One420 (70%)106 (71%)0.8469 (72%)37 (68%)0.7
 Two98 (16%)24 (16%)0.912 (13%)12 (22%)0.16
 Three24 (4%)6 (4%)0.814 (4%)2 (4%)1
 Four or more59 (10%)14 (9%)111 (11%)3 (6%)0.38
  • * All patients versus migraine group.

  • Migraine with aura versus migraine without aura.