Table 1

Summary of cell types that have been used in preclinical and clinical trials of stem cell therapy for cardiac repair

Cell typeAnimal studiesClinical trials
BMMNCsYesYes
EPCsYesYes
MSCsYesYes
Skeletal myoblastsYesYes
CPCsYesSafety trial underway
MAPCsYesNo
Umbilical cord bloodYesNo
ES cellsYesNo
iPSCsYesNo
  • BMMNC, bone marrow mononuclear cells; CPCs, cardiac progenitor cells; EPCs, endothelial progenitor cells; ES cells, embryonic stem cells; iPSCs, inducible pluripotent stem cells; MAPCs, multipotent adult progenitor cells; MSCs, mesenchymal stem cells.