Table 3

Cox's proportional hazards model for heart failure and mortality in patients with AF during the hospital course

CharacteristicHeart failureMortality
HR (95% CI)p ValueHR (95% CI)p Value
Age (per 10 years)1.3 (1.1 to 1.5)0.0031.3 (1.1 to 1.5)0.002
Gender0.8 (0.6 to 1.2)0.370.9 (0.6 to 1.8)0.89
Previous infarction1.0 (0.6 to 1.4)0.811.2 (0.8 to 1.7)0.42
Hypertension1.1 (0.7 to 1.6)0.761.1 (0.7 to 1.8)0.61
Diabetes1.7 (1.3 to 2.3)<0.0011.4 (0.9 to 2.0)0.10
eGRF <60 ml/minute1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)0.412.7 (1.8 to 4.0)<0.001
Anterior infarction1.3 (1.0 to 1.8)0.051.0 (0.7 to 1.4)0.97
Coronary revascularisation1.0 (0.8 to 1.2)0.660.8 (0.7 to 1.1)0.15
Killip class >I1.8 (1.3 to 2.3)0.0011.4 (1.0 to 2.0)0.04
Echocardiographic parameters
Left atrial dimension >4 cm1.6 (1.1 to 2.3)0.020.8 (0.6 to 1.3)0.44
LVEF <45%2.1 (1.5 to 3.0)<0.0012.5 (1.8 to 3.4)<0.001
FMR
 None/trivial1.0 (Referent)1.0 (Referent)
 Mild mitral regurgitation and Moderate mitral regurgitation2.2 (1.5 to 3.3)<0.0011.6 (1.1 to 2.3)0.02
 Moderate or severe mitral regurgitation3.1 (1.8 to 5.4)<0.0012.2 (1.3 to 3.9)0.006
AF
 Unadjusted3.7 (2.6 to 5.3)<0.0012.7 (1.8 to 4.0)<0.001
 Adjusted for clinical variables*2.2 (1.5 to 3.2)<0.0011.6 (1.1 to 2.5)0.02
 Adjusted for clinical variables, left atrial size and LVEF2.0 (1.3 to 2.9)0.0011.3 (1.0 to 1.9)0.02
 Adjusted for clinical variables, left atrial size and LVEF and FMR1.7 (1.2 to 2.5)0.0051.4 (0.9 to 2.1)0.12
  • * Clinical variables included age, gender, previous infarction, hypertension, diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), anterior infarction, coronary revascularisation and Killip class at admission.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; FMR, functional mitral regurgitation; HR, hazard ratio; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction.