Table 2

Echocardiographic and angiographic characteristics of the study population according to the occurrence of at least moderate post-procedural AR

CharacteristicsAR≥2/4 (n=119)AR<2/4 (n=571)p ValueOR (95% CI)
Aortic valve area (cm2)0.6±0.160.66±0.180.001
Mean aortic gradient (mm Hg)46.8±18.148.6±17.30.22
LVEF (%)48.6±15.952.8±14.80.005
LVEF≤30%24 (20)68 (12)0.011.87 (1.12 to 3.13)
Bicuspid aortic valve4 (3.4)8 (1.4)0.132.47 (0.73 to 8.34)
Degree of leaflet calcification
 Mild9 (7.8)28 (5)0.221.62 (0.74 to 3.53)
 Moderate44 (38)188 (33)0.321.23 (0.81 to 1.87)
 Severe62 (54)346 (62)0.130.73 (0.49 to 1.09)
Aortic annulus diameter (mm)23.4±2.323.5±2.60.72
 Measured with CT28 (24)215 (39)0.0020.50 (0.32 to 0.79)
 Measured with TOE88 (76)338 (61)0.0022.00 (1.26 to 3.16)
Pre-procedural AR
 None19 (16)141 (25)0.040.59 (0.35 to 0.99)
 Grade I74 (63)300 (53)0.041.54 (1.02 to 2.32)
 Grade II16 (14)105 (18)0.210.70 (0.40 to 1.23)
 Grade III4 (3)15 (3)0.641.31 (0.43 to 4.01)
 Grade IV4 (3)7 (1)0.092.84 (0.82 to 9.85)
Any mitral regurgitation108 (92)494 (87)0.111.80 (0.87 to 3.70)
Porcelain aorta11 (9.5)56 (10)0.880.95 (0.48 to 1.87)
  • Values are n (%) or mean±SD.

  • AR, aortic regurgitation; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; TOE, transoesophageal echocardiography.