Table 3

Relative change in serum LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) between the baseline (1991–3) and follow-up (2003–4) screening as a function of the use of lipid-lowering drugs, healthy diet and physical activity (N=4469)

nMean relative change in LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) and p value for difference
Model 1*Model 2Model 3
Start of lipid-lowering drugs
 During follow-up481−1.81<0.001−1.77<0.001−1.77<0.001
Change in AHEI score
 Increase (≥1 SD)717−0.14<0.001−0.14<0.001−0.070.03
 Stable (−1≤ SD <1)30710Reference0Reference0Reference
 Decrease (<−1 SD)6810.<0.001
Change in physical activity
 Increase (≥1 SD)601−0.110.007−0.100.02−0.100.005
 Stable (−1≤ SD <1)33120Reference0Reference0Reference
 Decrease (<−1 SD)5560.
  • * Model 1: Adjusted for sex, age at baseline, ethnicity and duration of follow-up.

  • Model 2: As model 1 and additionally adjusted for education level, BMI at baseline and long-standing illness at baseline.

  • Model 3: As model 2 with predictors mutually adjusted.

  • AHEI, alternate healthy eating index; BMI, body mass index; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.