Table 4

Estimated beneficial effect of lipid-lowering drugs, healthy diet and physical activity on LDL change in the population at risk and the total cohort

InterventionMean LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) change
Population at risk at baselineTotal cohort (n=4469)
Total N (N already following the intervention)*ObservedAfter interventionObservedAfter intervention
Start lipid-lowering drugs858 (515)−1.04−3.81−0.86−1.07
≥1 SD increase in the AHEI diet score*3457§ (684)−0.84−0.92−0.86−0.91
≥1 SD increase in the no of hours of physical activity*2190 (383)−0.85−0.96−0.86−0.90
  • * Here intervention stands for use of a lipid-lowering drug among those needing such a treatment according to the European guidelines, improving diet among those with an AHEI score less than 60, or increasing the duration of physical activity among those with less than 2.5 h/week. 1 SD increase in the AHEI score is 0.6 point and 1 SD increase in physical activity is 17 min/week

  • Decline in LDL-cholesterol estimated for participants who met the criteria for intervention based on effects shown in table 3, model 3.

  • Participants with cardiovascular disease risk score of 5% or greater or prevalent coronary heart disease or diabetes at baseline, or lipid-lowering medication at baseline or follow-up.

  • § Participants with an AHEI score of less than 60 at baseline.

  • Participants with physical activity for less than 2.5 h/week at baseline.

  • AHEI, alternate healthy eating index; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.