Table 1

Subject characteristics

CharacteristicsControl (n=60)HFNEF (n=112)HFREF (n=175)HFNEF versus HFREF
Age (range)53±10 (35–74)74±12 (34–95)***67±13 (30–94)***<0.001
Male (%)5236*70*<0.001
Body surface area (m2)1.68±0.191.61±0.191.65±0.23NS
Body mass index (kg/m2)23±324±424±5NS
Coronary artery disease (%)03249<0.01
Old myocardial infarction (%)0830<0.01
Hypertension (%)06355NS
Diabetes mellitus (%)04536NS
Hyperlipidaemia (%)01413NS
NYHA class (I/II/III/IV) (%)0(0/40/44/16)(0/30/46/24)NS
BNP (pg/ml)266±322779±775<0.01
Log BNP (pg/ml)4.97±1.386.20±1.03<0.001
LV ejection fraction (%)67.6±4.361.2±6.3***31.1±8.6***<0.001
Heart rate (bpm)70±1174±1975±17*NS
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)119±13156±29***130±25**<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)72±878±273±16NS
Pulse pressure (mm Hg)47±980±23***57±16***<0.001
Mean blood pressure (mm Hg)88±9103±20***92±18<0.001
β Blockers (%)04359<0.001
ACEI/ARB (%)05571<0.001
Calcium channel blockers (%)03510<0.001
Diuretics (%)07159<0.001
Spironolactone (%)05130.005
Digoxin (%)018100.002
Statins (%)02844<0.001
  • Data are mean±SD unless otherwise stated. Analysis was unadjusted.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001 versus control.

  • ACEI, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; HFNEF, heart failure with normal ejection fraction; HFREF, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; LV, left ventricular; NYHA, New York Heart Association.