Table 2

Left ventricular geometry and cardiovascular function

Control (n=60)HFNEF (n=112)HFREF (n=175)HFNEF versus HFREF
LV mass index (g/m2)77±18115±34***152±47***<0.001
LV mass/EDV (mg/ml)1.37±0.312.07±0.70***1.67±0.49**<0.001
Relative wall thickness0.35±0.060.42±0.11***0.31±0.07**<0.001
LV hypertrophy (%)665***81***<0.01
LVEDV (ml)95±2194±30159±59***<0.001
LVEDV index (ml/m2)57±1060±1997±35***<0.001
LVESV (ml)31±937±14112±51***<0.001
Stroke volume index (ml/m2)37.8±6.536.7±11.628.9±8.9***<0.001
Stroke work index (g/cm2)59.5±6.563.0±12.7*29.0±10.5***<0.001
Cardiac index (l/min/m2)2.7±0.52.6±1.12.1±0.7***<0.001
Wall motion score index1.01.02±0.092.08±0.34***<0.001
Endocardial fractional shortening (%)40.4±4.334.5±8.0***15.7±5.9***<0.001
Mid-wall fractional shortening (%)19.5±1.915.5±3.5***9.4±3.3***<0.001
Ees (mm Hg/ml)3.7±1.04.3±1.7**1.3±0.7***<0.001
Ees·LV mass (mm Hg·g/ml)470±143762±325***296±138***<0.001
Ees·EDV (mm Hg)337±55373±95**173±44***<0.001
Ees/(LVmass/EDV) (mm Hg/g)2.9±0.82.2±0.9***0.8±0.3***<0.001
Ventricular-arterial coupling
Ea (mm Hg/ml)1.7±0.42.7±1.1***2.8±1.4***NS
SVRI (dyne·s/cm−5·m2)2452±5583386±1782**3414±1313***NS
Total arterial compliance (ml/mm Hg)1.38±0.310.76±0.31***0.91±0.47***<0.01
Ea/Ees0.48±0.090.65±0.162.48±1.09***<0.001
LV diastolic function
Diastolic pattern (%)******<0.001
 Normal7000
 Abnormal relaxation304230
 Pseudonormal filling04134
 Restrictive filling01736
Left atrial volume index, (ml/m2)24.4±5.350.0±24.4***53.5±22.3***<0.001
Early mitral inflow, E (m/s)0.74±0.130.99±0.38***0.84±0.32*<0.001
Late mitral inflow, A (m/s)0.64±0.150.84±0.6***0.61±0.27<0.001
E/A ratio1.21±0.341.39±1.241.83±1.44**<0.05
Deceleration time (ms)211±46219±88161±64***<0.001
Isovolumic relaxation time (ms)85±1290±2792±28NS
Septal e′ (cm/s)9.0±2.25.3±2.0***4.4±1.6***<0.001
E/septal e′8.5±2.219.9±9.7***21.4±10.7***NS
  • Data are mean±SD. Comparisons were adjusted for age, sex and body surface area when appropriate.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001 versus control.

  • Ea, effective arterial elastance; EDV, end-diastolic volume; Ees, end-systolic elastance; ESV, end-systolic volume; E/septal e′, ratio of early mitral diastolic inflow velocity to medial mitral annular early diastolic velocity; HFNEF, heart failure with normal ejection fraction; HFREF, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; LV, left ventricular; SVRI, systemic vascular resistance index.