Table 3

Left ventricular load and load-independent measures of contractility in all subgroups

Control (n=60)HFNEF (n=112)HFREF (n=175)HFNEF versus HFREF
Circumferential ESS, (kdyne/cm2)126±32170±62***295±79***<0.001
Meridional ESS (kdyne/cm2)62±1985±35**165±49***<0.001
PRSW (g/cm2)85±1178±22*43±14***<0.001
cESS-corrected MWFS (%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)16.7±5.110.6±4.9***3.5±1.7***<0.001
mESS-corrected FS (%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)72.5±29.452.1±36.3***10.9±6.4***<0.001
Stress-corrected FS (% predicted from cESS)117±11114±2273±25***<0.001
Stress-corrected FS <80% of predicted (%)0764***<0.001
Stress-corrected MWFS (% predicted from cESS)101±1085±19***60±20***<0.001
Stress-corrected MWFS <78% of predicted (%)034***82***<0.001
Global two-dimensional strains
Circumferential strain (%)26.4±3.520.8±4.9***9.5±3.3***<0.001
Circumferential strain·EDV index (ml/m2)15.0±3.012.4±4.8***9.1±3.6***<0.001
cESS corrected-circumferential strain (%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)21.7±6.914.1±6.9***3.5±1.6***<0.001
% below mean−2SD (<7.9%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)01499
Radial strain (%)44.5±10.232.9±10.6***18.0±9.7***<0.001
Radial strain·EDV index (ml/m2)24.8±7.020.1±9.5**17.2±10.9***<0.05
cESS corrected-radial strain (%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)36.0±12.622.7±14.1***6.7±4.1***<0.001
% below mean−2SD (<10.8%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)01286
Longitudinal strain (%)20.9±2.515.9±3.9***9.6±3.6***<0.001
Longitudinal strain·EDV index (ml/m2)11.9±2.69.7±3.9**9.1±3.8***NS
cESS corrected-longitudinal strain (%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)16.9±4.210.5±4.7***3.5±1.8***<0.001
% below mean−2SD (<8.5%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)03798
mESS corrected-longitudinal strain (%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)34.9±9.821.9±10.7***6.4±3.4***<0.001
% below mean−2SD (<15.3%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)03297
Torsional strain (degree)21.6±5.216.3±7.1***8.2±5.3***<0.001
Torsional strain· (SV/EDV)(degree)14.6±3.810.0±4.8***2.6±2.1***<0.001
cESS corrected−torsional strain (degree·cm2/kdyne·10−2)17.6±5.911.1±6.4***3.0±2.1***<0.001
% below mean−2SD (<5.8 degree·cm2/kdyne·10−2)02094
% Patients with at least one component below mean−2SD05099
  • Comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, and body surface area when appropriate.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001 versus control.

  • cESS, circumferential end-systolic stress; EDV, end-diastolic volume; FS, endocardial fractional shortening; HFNEF, heart failure with normal ejection fraction; HFREF, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; mESS, meridional end-systolic stress; MWFS, mid-wall fractional shortening; PRSW, pre-load recruitable stroke work; SV, stroke volume.