Table 4

Ventricular–arterial coupling and load-independent measures of left ventricular contractility in the subgroup of patients with heart failure and normal ejection fraction and controls

Control (n=60)HFNEF (n=112)
Without CAD (n=77)With CAD (n=35)Without versus with CAD
Load-independent measures of contractility
PRSW (g/cm2)85±1180±21***74±24***NS
cESS-corrected MWFS (%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)16.7±5.110.9±4.9***9.9±4.8***NS
mESS-corrected FS (%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)72.5±29.452.3±33.5**51.7±42.2**NS
Stress-corrected FS (% predicted from cESS)117±11114±20116±26NS
Stress-corrected FS <80% of predicted (%)076NS
Stress-corrected MWFS (% predicted from cESS)101±1086±19***83±20***NS
Stress-corrected MWFS <78% of predicted (%)030***42***NS
Global two-dimensional strains
Circumferential strain (%)26.4±3.521.2±5.0***20.0±4.5***NS
Circumferential strain·EDV index (ml/m2)15.0±3.012.8±4.8*12.0±5.2**NS
cESS corrected-circumferential strain (%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)21.7±6.914.7±7.5***12.9±5.1***NS
Radial strain (%)44.5±10.232.8±11.5***33.4±8.8***NS
Radial strain·EDV index (ml/m2)24.8±7.020.5±9.4*20.2±10.3*NS
cESS corrected−radial strain (%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)36.0±12.623.0±15.1***22.0±11.8***NS
Longitudinal strain (%)20.9±2.516.3±3.7***14.9±4.4***NS
Longitudinal strain·EDV index (ml/m2)11.9±2.610.2±3.9*9.2±4.1**NS
cESS corrected-longitudinal strain (%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)16.9±4.211.0±4.7***9.6±4.4***NS
mESS corrected-longitudinal strain (%·cm2/kdyne·10−2)34.9±9.822.7±10.8***20.2±10.5***NS
Torsional strain (degree)21.6±5.216.1±7.5***17.0±6.3***NS
Torsional strain· (SV/EDV)(degree)14.6±3.810.0±4.9***10.1±4.4***NS
cESS corrected−torsional strain (degree·cm2/kdyne·10−2)17.6±5.911.2±6.7***11.0±6.0***NS
  • Comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, and body surface area when appropriate.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001 versus control.

  • CAD, coronary artery disease; cESS, circumferential end-systolic stress; EDV, end-diastolic volume; mESS, meridional end-systolic stress; FS, endocardial fractional shortening; HFNEF, heart failure with normal ejection fraction; MWFS, mid-wall fractional shortening; PRSW, pre-load recruitable stroke work; SV, stroke volume.