Table 1

Characteristics of the studies included in the meta-analysis

StudyYearCountryDesignStudy populationMean age (years)Male (%)NMean time interval*ECHO methodMean sPAP (ECHO) (mm Hg)Mean sPAP (RHC) (mm Hg)CC
Cardiac disease
Abaci et al421998TurkeyPCValvular heart disease (n=35), Atrial septal defect (n=10)5440452 hTRJ + RAP (IVC)50±1550±140.90
Attaran et al432009USARCHeart transplant candidates (44% ischaemic CM, 53% dilated CM)50801082.2 daysTRJ + RAP (IVC)47±1445±180.49
Lanzarini et al29 302002 2005ItalyPCChronic heart failure patients (57% idiopathic, 24% ischaemic, 5% PH, 13% other) evaluated for transplant (lung or heart)527475/86 (87%)24 hTRJ + RAP (IVC)44±2142±210.88
Mogollon et al382008SpainRCHeart transplant patients undergoing RHC for evaluation of PHNRNR67NRTRJ + RAP (IVC)63±2158±220.69
Penning et al412001USARCPregnant patients with cardiac disease (35% ASD, 15% VSD, 15% PDA, 20% MS, 15% other) suspected of having PH2902726 daysTRJ + RAP (IVC)55±2651±320.34**
Skjaerpe and Hatle441986NorwayPCPatients with tricuspid regurgitation on ECHO (34% MS/MR, 16% AS/AR, 13% ASD, 37% other)5164702 daysTRJ + RAP (JVP)NRNR0.96
Stein et al451997USAPCPatients with NYHA class III/IV heart failure (48% ischaemic, 52% idiopathic) undergoing RHC for potential heart transplant488821/25 (84%)Same timeTRJ + RAP (IVC)NR50±170.97
Thwaites et al461987UKPCPatients undergoing routine RHC (38% rheumatic disease, 19% ischaemic disease, 14% MVP, 14% CM, 15% other)555716/21 (76%)5 daysTRJ + RAP (JVP)45±2249±240.96
Lung disease
Mixed causes
Arcasoy et al312003USAPCAdvanced lung disease referred for lung transplantation (68% COPD; 28% ILD; 4% PVD)5143166/374 (44%)72 hTRJ + RAP (IVC)53±2042±180.69
Ben-Dor et al472006IsraelRCLung transplant candidates (42% COPD, 48% ILD, 10% other)576679/106 (75%)65 daysTRJ + RAP (10)40±1044±80.80
Fisher et al482009USAPCPH patients (24% IPAH, 40% PAH CTD, 36% other)541559/65 (91%)1 hTRJ + RAP (IVC)70±2569±240.66
Haddad et al492009USAPCPatients with established PAH (47% IPAH, 16% CTD, 25% stimulant, 12% other) undergoing RHC for routine care493148/51 (94%)3 hTRJ + RAP (IVC)80±2285±240.97
Homma et al502001USARCPatients with PH (42% IPF, 42% PPH, 16% other) awaiting lung transplant51421914 daysTRJ + RAP (10)76±2975±230.50
Nogami et al512009JapanPCPatients suspected of having PH (25% PPH, 65% chronic thromboembolic disease, 10% COPD)60652030 daysTRJ + RAP (IVC)NRNR0.86
Selimovic et al522007SwedenPCPatients with PH (48% IPF, 24% CTD, 38% other) evaluated for medical treatment or lung transplantationNRNR22Same timeTRJ + RAP (IVC)72±1973±220.94
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Nathan et al402008USARCIPF patients being evaluated for lung transplant63556032 daysTRJ + RAP (IVC)NRNRNR
Swanson et al532008USAPCPatients with IPF who were suspected of having PH (ECHO sPAP >40 mm Hg)70684014 daysTRJ + RAP (IVC)64±1757±170.66
Denton et al321997UKPCScleroderma patients with clinical suspicion of PH493020/33 (61%)54 daysTRJ + RAP (JVP)NRNR0.83
Hsu et al342008USAPCScleroderma patients with clinical suspicion of PH5518494 hTRJ + RAP (10)NRNR0.50
Mukerjee et al392004UKPCSystemic sclerosis patients being evaluated for PH63NR13790 daysTRJ + RAP (IVC)42380.45
Fisher et al332007USAPCEmphysema patients being evaluated for lung volume reduction surgery666063/163 (39%)23 daydTRJ + RAP (IVC)39±1037±70.23
Laaban et al361989FrancePCCOPD patients referred for RHC637827/41 (66%)2 daysTRJ + RAP (5)NR39±150.65
Matsuyama et al372001JapanPCCOPD patients (92% emphysema, 8% chronic bronchitis)669435/64 (55%)NRTRJ + RAP (IVC)NRNR0.83
Tramarin et al541991ItalyPCPatients with COPD588830/100 (30%)72 hTRJ + RAP (JVP)NR25±100.68
Mixed cardiac and lung disease
Chan et al551987USAPCPatients in whom RHC indicated (10% PH, 38% valvular disease; 8% dilated CM, 12% CAD, 32% other)494636/50 (72%)Same timeTRJ + RAP (JVP/14)§NRNR0.87
Kim et al352000USAPCLiver transplant candidates54507459 hTRJ + RAP (IVC)52470.78
Wylie et al562007USARCPregnant patients who had undergone RHC (28% CM; 17% congenital heart disease, 17% PPH, 38% other)30018NRTRJ + RAP (IVC)57±26††54±33††0.79
Yock and Popp81984USAPCPatients suspected of having elevated right-sided pressures based on historical, physical and imaging modalities (47% CM, 24% rheumatic disease, 39% other)5056%54/62 (87%)24 hTRJ + RAP (JVP)NRNR0.93
  • * Time interval between right heart catheterisation (RHC) and echocardiogram (ECHO).

  • Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) instead of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP).

  • Number of patients in whom ECHO possible over total number of patients in study (only mean systolic PAP by ECHO based on ECHO patients whereas all other values based on total population).

  • § Both jugular venous pressure (JVP) and fixed value of 14 mm Hg used to estimate right atrial pressure (RAP).

  • RHC done within this time period (not mean time).

  • ** Calculated from raw data.

  • †† Calculated value based on 21 measurements on 18 patients.

  • AR, aortic regurgitation; AS, aortic stenosis; ASD, atrial septal defect; CAD, coronary artery disease; CC, correlation coefficent; CM, cardiomyopathy; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CTD, connective tissue disease; ILD, interstitial lung disease; IPAH, idiopathic pulmonary arterial pressure; IPF, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; IVC, inferior vena cava; MCTD, mixed connective tissue disease; MR, mitral regurgitation; MS, mitral stenosis; MVP, mitral valve prolapse; N, number of patients; n, number patients; NR, not recorded; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PAH, pulmonary arterial pressure; PC, prospective cohort; PDA, patent ductus arteriosus; PH, pulmonary hypertension; PPH, primary PH; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; RAP, right atrial pressure (based on fixed value (ie, 10 mm Hg) or by inspiratory collapse of IVC or assessment of JVP); RC, retrospective cohort; RHC, right heart catheterisation; RVSP, right ventricular systolic pressure; TRJ, maximum tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity; VSD, ventricular septal defect.