Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to depression score and physical activity group

Depressive symptoms*Physical activity group score (lower score=less active)
CharacteristicLow (n=4600)High (n=1252)p Value I: 0–3 (n=653)II: 4–7 (n=1914)III: 8–11 (n=2546)IV: 12–15 (n=739)p Value
Age, years72.7±5.573.2±5.90.02275.6±6.673.5±5.872.2±5.270.9±4.2<0.001
Gender, % female54.768.5<0.00169.262.254.646.1<0.001
Race, % white85.676.8<0.00169.578.988.492.7<0.001
Education beyond HS, %72.762.9<0.00156.863.674.587.1<0.001
Current smoker, %11.214.10.04412.314.710.68.50.015
Former smoker, %42.538.00.03735.839.342.449.3<0.001
Alcoholic drinks/week2.7±6.71.7±5.3<0.0011.7±6.02.2±6.62.6±6.43.3±6.4<0.001
BMI, kg/m226.6±4.627.0±5.20.03828.0±6.227.3±5.026.3±4.125.5±3.7<0.001
Systolic BP, mm Hg136.3±21.6137.4±22.50.142141.2±22.9137.8±22.0135.4±21.5133.1±20.6<0.001
Diastolic BP, mm Hg70.8±11.370.5±11.70.39871.6±12.170.7±11.470.3±11.171.1±11.50.233
Hypertension, %42.850.4<0.00155.249.241.134.0<0.001
CHD, %18.725.8<0.00128.221.517.917.6<0.001
CHF, %4.57.8<0.00111.86.63.42.3<0.001
Diabetes, %15.319.9<0.00125.718.313.911.1<0.001
LDL-C, mg/dl129.8±35.5129.6±36.60.845132.9±38.9129.0±36.1130.0±34.9128.2±34.80.112
HDL-C, mg/dl53.9±15.655.2±15.90.01453.9±15.953.2±15.354.6±15.755.8±16.40.001
Triglycerides, mg/dl138.6±76.1143.2±79.70.073149.4±91.3142.7±74.7137.0±76.6132.3±67.8<0.001
CRP, mg/dl4.63±8.055.65±9.84<0.0016.65±8.575.60±9.944.24±7.623.40±6.34<0.001
Cystatin C, mg/l1.11±0.331.14±0.390.0421.26±0.501.15±0.391.09±0.281.04±0.25<0.001
Creatinine, mg/dl1.07±0.401.06±0.400.4551.15±0.541.08±0.441.05±0.351.04±0.25<0.001
TCA, %2.05.3<0.0015.43.22.21.0<0.001
Non-TCA, %0.62.3<0.0011.81.10.90.30.003
  • Data expressed as mean±SD for continuous variables or percentage for dichotomous variables.

  • * Depressive symptoms based on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (10-item version): low (score 0–7) and high (score ≥8).

  • p Values from two-sample t tests for continuous and χ2 tests for dichotomous variables.

  • p Values from linear regression for continuous and logistic regression for dichotomous variables.

  • BP, blood pressure; BMI, body mass index; CHD, coronary heart disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; CRP, C reactive protein; HS, high school; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TCA, tricyclic antidepressant use.